Oxidative stress plays a role in UV-induced melanoma, which may arise from melanocytic nevi. We investigated whether oral administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) could protect nevi from oxidative stress in vivo in the setting of acute UV exposure. The minimal erythemal dose (MED) was determined for 100 patients at increased risk for melanoma. Patients were randomized to receive a single dose (1,200 mg) of NAC or placebo, in double-blind fashion, and then one nevus was irradiated (1–2 MED) using a solar simulator. One day later, the MED was redetermined and the irradiated nevus and a control unirradiated nevus were removed for histologic analysis and examination of biomarkers of NAC metabolism and UV-induced oxidative stress. Increased expression of 8-oxoguanine, thioredoxin reductase-1, and γ-glutamylcysteine synthase modifier subunit were consistently seen in UV-treated compared with unirradiated nevi. However, no significant differences were observed in these UV-induced changes or in the pre- and postintervention MED between those patients receiving NAC versus placebo. Similarly, no significant differences were observed in UV-induced changes between subjects with germline wild-type versus loss-of-function mutations in the melanocortin-1 receptor. Nevi showed similar changes of UV-induced oxidative stress in an open-label post-trial study in 10 patients who received NAC 3 hours before nevus irradiation. Thus, a single oral dose of NAC did not effectively protect nevi from UV-induced oxidative stress under the conditions examined. Cancer Prev Res; 10(1); 36–44. ©2016 AACR.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Prevention Research Online (http://cancerprevres.aacrjournals.org/).
ClinicalTrials.gov registration ID: NCT01612221.
- Received June 16, 2016.
- Revision received August 5, 2016.
- Accepted August 22, 2016.
- ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.