In late 2015, the NCI Division of Cancer Prevention convened cancer prevention research experts and stakeholders to discuss the current state of cancer prevention research, identify key prevention research priorities for the NCI, and identify studies that could be conducted within the NCI Community Oncology Research Program. Goals included identifying cancer prevention research opportunities offering the highest return on investment, exploring the concept of precision prevention and what is needed to advance this area of research, and identifying possible targets for prevention. Four study populations were considered for cancer prevention research: healthy people, those at increased risk for a specific cancer, people with preneoplastic lesions, and children, adolescents, and young adults. Priorities that emerged include screening (e.g., surveillance intervals, tomosynthesis vs. digital mammography), a pre-cancer genome atlas (PreTCGA), HPV vaccines, immunoprevention of noninfectious origins, and overdiagnosis. Challenges exist, as the priority list is ambitious and potentially expensive. Clinical trials need to be carefully designed to include and maximize prospective tissue collection. Exploring existing cofunding mechanisms will likely be necessary. Finally, relationships with a new generation of physician specialists will need to be cultivated to reach the target populations. Cancer Prev Res; 10(2); 99–107. ©2016 AACR.
- Received September 2, 2016.
- Revision received November 21, 2016.
- Accepted November 23, 2016.
- ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.