Racial/ethnic disparity in prostate cancer is under studied in men with diabetes who are at a higher risk of aggressive prostate cancer. This study assessed the race/ethnic disparity in prostate cancer incidence for men with type II diabetes (T2D) and whether the impact of metformin on prostate cancer incidence varied by race/ethnicity. We conducted a retrospective study in 76,733 male veterans with T2D during 2003 to 2012. Cox proportional hazards model adjusting for covariates and propensity scores of metformin use and race/ethnic group membership was utilized to compute the HR of prostate cancer incidence associated with race/ethnicity and compare HR associated with metformin use between race/ethnic groups. Mean follow-up was 6.4 ± 2.8 years; 7% were Hispanics; 17% were African Americans (AA); mean age was 67.8 ± 9.8 years; 5.2% developed prostate cancer; and 38.9% used metformin. Among these diabetic men without metformin use, prostate cancer incidence was higher in Hispanics and AA than in non-Hispanic White (NHW). Use of metformin alone or metformin + statins was associated with a greater prostate cancer incidence reduction in Hispanics compared with NHW, but not between AA and NHW. Use of metformin + finasteride was associated with a greater prostate cancer incidence reduction in Hispanics and AA compared with NHW. Our results suggested that metformin treatment could be a potential strategy to reduce prostate cancer incidence in the minority populations who are at high risk for fatal prostate cancer. It will be important to further examine the pleiotropic effects of metformin in multi-race/ethnic prospective studies to better inform clinical management and potentially reduce racial/ethnic disparity in prostate cancer incidence among diabetic men. Cancer Prev Res; 9(10); 779–87. ©2016 AACR.
Note: Supplementary data for this article are available at Cancer Prevention Research Online (http://cancerprevres.aacrjournals.org/).
- Received December 11, 2015.
- Revision received March 2, 2016.
- Accepted March 22, 2016.
- ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.