Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), acting in an autocrine or paracrine fashion through G proteincoupled receptors, has been implicated in many physiological and pathological processes including cancer. LPA is converted to lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by the secreted phospholipase, autotaxin (ATX). Although various cell types can produce ATX, adipocyte-derived ATX is believed to be the major source of circulating ATX and also to be the major regulator of plasma LPA. In addition to ATX, adipocytes secrete numerous other factors (adipokines); although several adipokines have been implicated in breast cancer biology, the contribution of mammary adipose tissue-derived LPC/ATX/LPA (LPA-axis) signaling to breast cancer is poorly understood. Using mammary fat-conditioned medium, we investigated the contribution of LPA signaling to mammary epithelial cancer cell biology and identified LPA signaling as a significant contributor to the oncogenic effects of the mammary adipose tissue secretome. To interrogate the role of mammary fat in the LPA-axis during breast cancer progression, we exposed mammary adipose tissue to secreted factors from estrogen receptor-negative mammary epithelial cell lines and monitored changes in the mammary fat pad LPA axis.Our data indicate that bidirectional interactions between mammary cancer cells and mammary adipocytes alter the local LPA-axis and increase ATX expression in the mammary fat pad during breast cancer progression. Thus, the LPC/ATX/LPA axis may be a useful target for prevention in patients at risk of ER-negative breast cancer.
- Received March 17, 2015.
- Revision received January 21, 2016.
- Accepted January 27, 2016.
- Copyright © 2016, American Association for Cancer Research.