Treatment with celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, reduces formation of premalignant adenomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and mice. In addition to its chemopreventive activity, celecoxib can exhibit anti-microbial activity. Differing bacterial profiles have been found in feces from colon cancer patients compared with that of normal subjects. Moreover, preclinical studies suggest that bacteria can modulate intestinal tumorigenesis by secreting specific metabolites. In the current study, we determined whether celecoxib treatment altered the luminal microbiota and metabolome in association with reducing intestinal polyp burden in mice. Administration of celecoxib for 10 weeks markedly reduced intestinal polyp burden in APCMin/+ mice. Treatment with celecoxib also altered select luminal bacterial populations in both APCMin/+ and wildtype mice including decreased Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae as well as increased Coriobacteriaceae. Metabolomic analysis demonstrated that celecoxib caused a strong reduction in many fecal metabolites linked to carcinogenesis including glucose, amino acids, nucleotides and lipids. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis suggested that these changes in metabolites may contribute to reduced cell proliferation. To this end, we showed that celecoxib reduced cell proliferation in the base of normal appearing ileal and colonic crypts of APCMin/+ mice. Consistent with this finding, lineage tracing indicated that celecoxib treatment reduced the rate at which Lgr5-positive stem cells gave rise to differentiated cell types in the crypts. Taken together, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alters the luminal microbiota and metabolome along with reducing epithelial cell proliferation in mice. We hypothesize that these actions contribute to its chemopreventive activity.
- Received April 12, 2016.
- Revision received June 24, 2016.
- Accepted July 12, 2016.
- Copyright ©2016, American Association for Cancer Research.