Table 1

Effect of kava on lung tumor multiplicity by a mixture of NNK plus B[a]P in A/J mice

GroupNo. mice at initiationBody weight at initiation (mean ± SD, g/mouse)No. mice at terminationBody weight at termination (mean ± SD, g/mouse)Lung tumors
Mice with tumors (%)Tumors/mouse (mean ± SD)Reduction in tumor multiplicity (%)P*
1 (untreated control)2017.1 ± 0.72025.3 ± 0.90.25 ± 0.5
2 (carcinogen alone)3017.0 ± 0.53025.1 ± 1.010012.8 ± 7.0
3 (30-wk kava alone)2017.0 ± 0.71824.1 ± 0.70.33 ± 0.84
4 (carcinogen and 30-wk kava)2016.9 ± 0.72023.3 ± 1.11005.65 ± 3.2556.0<0.0001
5 (carcinogen and 8-wk concurrent kava)2016.9 ± 0.51924.5 ± 0.91006.79 ± 4.5747.10.0018
6 (carcinogen and 22-wk post-carcinogen kava)2016.8 ± 0.41724.3 ± 0.81006.59 ± 3.4548.70.0014

NOTE: Beginning at age 6 to 7 wk, female A/J mice in groups 2, 4, 5, and 6 were treated with gavage weekly for 8 wk with a mixture of NNK + B[a]P (2 μmol each) in 0.1-mL cottonseed oil. The mice were maintained on AIN-93G diet from age 5 to 6 wk until 1 wk after the end of carcinogen treatment and then shifted to AIN-93M diet for the duration of the experiment. The mice in groups 3 and 4 were maintained on a diet supplemented with kava at a dose of 10 mg/g diet throughout the duration of the experiment (30 wk). The mice in group 5 were maintained on a diet supplemented with kava at a dose of 10 mg/g diet 1 d before the first carcinogen treatment and 1 d after the last carcinogen treatment (8 wk). The mice in group 6 were maintained on a standard diet until 1 d after the last carcinogen treatment and then switched to a diet supplemented with kava at a dose of 10 mg/g diet for the rest of the experiment (22 wk).

  • *Compared with group 2.