Table 3

Summary statistics for the association between H. pylori and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

No. studiesQ statistic*PI2 (%)Random effects OR (95% CI)Fixed effects OR (95% CI)
H. pylori (921/2,743)§
 All studies929.76<0.01731.10 (0.78–1.55)1.07 (0.91–1.26)
 Large studies (SE <0.5)929.76<0.01731.10 (0.78–1.55)1.07 (0.91–1.26)
 Population-based studies627.52<0.01821.00 (0.62–1.60)1.01 (0.84–1.21)
 Western studies48.210.04631.17 (0.71–1.95)1.16 (0.87–1.56)
 Eastern studies521.17<0.01811.05 (0.63–1.77)1.03 (0.85–1.25)
 Studies used serologic tests929.76<0.01731.10 (0.78–1.55)1.07 (0.91–1.26)
 Studies with age-matched controls610.470.06521.28 (0.89–1.83)1.27 (1.00–1.61)
 Adjusted results713.540.04560.99 (0.67–1.45)1.04 (0.84–1.29)
H. pylori (the broader definition)930.66<0.01741.26 (0.88–1.80)1.20 (1.01–1.42)
CagA-negative strains42.770.4301.41 (1.00–1.97)1.37 (0.98–1.90)
CagA-positive strains**42.600.4601.01 (0.80–1.27)1.01 (0.80–1.27)
  • 2 Q statistic for homogeneity in the random-effects model.

  • P value for the Q statistic in the random-effects model.

  • Higgins I2 statistic for heterogeneity in the random-effects model.

  • §Being positive for antibodies against whole cell or being positive for H. pylori in invasive tests; numbers inside parenthesis refer to number of cases/controls.

  • Being positive for antibodies against whole cell or CagA, or positive for H. pylori in invasive tests.

  • This row compares subjects with CagA-negative strains versus those who are H. pylori negative.

  • **This row compares subjects with CagA-positive strains versus those who are H. pylori negative.