Table 4.

Association of H. pylori seroprevalence by CagA status with dietary micronutrient levels, as determined by an FFQ

H. pylori − (n = 66) mean intake (SE)aH. pylori +, CagA− (n = 109) mean intake (SE)aH. pylori +, CagA+ (n = 135) mean intake (SE)aDifference between H. pylori − and H. pylori +, CagA−Difference between H. pylori − and H. pylori +, CagA+Difference between H. pylori +, CagA− and H. pylori +, CagA+
P valuebPercent decreaseP valuebPercent decreaseP valuebPercent decrease
Total carotenoids, mcg/d12,014.0 (1.07)11,275.5 (1.05)11,414.6 (1.05)0.456.1%0.565.0%0.87−1.2%
α-carotene, mcg/d342.0 (1.12)362.7 (1.09)332.6 (1.08)0.67−6.0%0.852.8%0.478.3%
β-carotene, mcg/d3,370.3 (1.09)3,125.5 (1.07)3,181.4 (1.06)0.477.3%0.595.6%0.84−1.8%
Lycopene, mcg/d4,526.1 (1.08)4,324.5 (1.06)4,025.6 (1.06)0.634.5%0.2311.1%0.386.9%
Lutein and zeaxanthin, mcg/d2,486.1 (1.10)2,460.1 (1.07)2,559.9 (1.07)0.931.0%0.80−3.0%0.68−4.1%
β-cryptoxanthin, mcg/d161.2 (1.12)130.2 (1.09)148.1 (1.09)0.1419.3%0.578.1%0.30−13.8%
Retinol, mcg/d454.1 (1.06)438.0 (1.04)468.7 (1.04)0.593.5%0.65−3.2%0.24–7.0%
α-tocopherol, mg/d7.8 (1.04)7.4 (1.03)7.5 (1.03)0.314.9%0.523.3%0.69−1.7%
Folate, mcg/d598.0 (1.04)558.9 (1.03)580.8 (1.03)0.216.5%0.602.9%0.40−3.9%
  • aAdjusted for age, race, sex, BMI, education, smoking, use of vitamin supplements, and total energy intake.

  • bFor absolute difference.