Table 2.

Baseline characteristics and baseline prevalence of MetS and individual components in colon and rectal cancer cases and matched controls, EPIC, 1992–2003

 Colon cancerRectal cancer
Cases (N = 689)Controls (N = 689)PaCases (N = 404)Controls (N = 404)Pa
Sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics
 Women, %54.754.745.845.8
 Age, mean (SD), y58.8 (7.3)58.8 (7.3)0. 9758.1 (7.0)58.1 (7.0)0.74
 University degree, %16.718.40.3120.020.00.23
 Postmenopausal women, %72.270.80.7069.269.70.98
 Ever use of HRT, %11.510.60.798.77.80.32
 Not fasting overnight, %48.248.70.5757.557.80.54
 Smokers, %23.720.80.4227.728.20.87
 Physically inactive, %15.512.80.1315.814.90.007
 Alcohol intake, median (IQR), g/d7.9 (2.3–17.9)7.5 (2.7–17.4)0.2011.9 (3.5–27.2)10.6 (3.5–22.4)0.009
 Fruits and vegetables intake, median (IQR), g/d381.3 (244.1–549.7)412.3 (259.7–564.2)0.08355.7 (247.8–522.6)372.7 (256.9–541.9)0.43
Metabolic abnormalities
 WC, mean (SD)90.5 (13.1)88.0 (12.1)<0.00190.5 (13.1)89.9 (13.1)0.58
 BMI, mean (SD)26.9 (4.4)26.3 (3.8)0.0226.6 (4.1)26.5 (3.9)0.55
 TG, median (IQR), mmol/L1.13 (0.77–1.61)1.05 (0.76–1.50)0.021.14 (0.79–1.62)1.14 (0.79–1.63)0.99
 HDL-C, median (IQR), mmol/L1.37 (1.12–1.66)1.44 (1.19–1.75)<0.0011.44 (1.16–1.71)1.40 (1.14–1.70)0.94
 Systolic BP, mean (SD), mmHg137.1 (22.3)135.3 (19.3)0.11136.6 (20.7)137.9 (21.6)0.17
 Diastolic BP, mean (SD), mmHg83.0 (12.5)81.8 (10.9)0.2282.9 (10.9)83.0 (11.2)0.46
 HbA1c, median (IQR), %5.8 (5.5–6.1)5.7 (5.5–6.0)0.025.7 (5.5–6.0)5.7 (5.5–6.0)0.93
Components of the definitions of MetS
 AO by NCEP/ATPIII definition, %33.525.4<0.00131.425.90.08
 AO by IDF definition, %63.652.8<0.00159.257.20.56
 Elevated TG, %21.917.70.0423.321.50.54
 Reduced HDL-C, %25.519.70.00919.321.50.42
 Elevated BP, %64.259.90.0864.662.10.43
 AGM, %51.738.3<0.00150.739.90.003
Number of MetS components,b %
 012.218.3<0.00111.916.30.05
 1 or 254.660.80.0258.260.40.51
 3 or more33.220.9<0.00130.023.30.02
Definitions of MetS
 MetS by NCEP/ATPIII definition, %33.220.9<0.00130.023.30.02
 MetS by IDF definition, %40.627.3<0.00135.630.70.13
 MetS by the harmonized definition, %44.429.8<0.00138.432.90.09

NOTE: Sex, age, menopausal status, fasting status, and HRT use were among the matching criteria.

Abbreviations: AO, abdominal obesity; AGM, abnormal glucose metabolism; BMI, body mass index; WC, waist circumference; TG, tryglicerides; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; BP, blood pressure; HRT, hormonal replacement therapy; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; MetS, metabolic syndrome; IQR, interquartile range; SD, standard deviation.

  • aP values for the difference between cases and controls were determined by Student's paired t test for variables expressed as means, by Wilcoxon's signed-rank test for variables expressed as medians, and by Mc Nemar's test and Bowker's test of symmetry for variables expressed as percentages.

  • bMetS components as defined according to the NCEP/ATPIII definition.