Table 5.

Postdiagnostic consumption of individual red meat and poultry items and relative hazard of lethal prostate cancer among 3,127 men diagnosed with clinically localized or regional prostate cancer (1994–2008)

Servings/wkPa
Unprocessed red meat items
Hamburgerb<0.50.5–0.91–1.4≥1.5
Events22393230
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.02 (0.60–1.72)1.18 (0.68–2.05)1.01 (0.57–1.80)0.95
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.00.92 (0.52–1.63)0.97 (0.52–1.81)0.76 (0.38–1.52)0.41
Beef, lamb, pork (sandwich or mixed dish)e<0.50.5–0.91–1.4≥1.5
Events24502029
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.81 (1.10–2.98)1.44 (0.77–2.66)1.94 (1.09–3.47)0.09
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.02.08 (1.20–3.59)1.74 (0.87–3.50)2.21 (1.12–4.36)0.14
Beef, lamb, pork (main dish)f<11–1.41.5–2.4≥2.5
Events42203229
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.00.60 (0.35–1.03)0.81 (0.50–1.31)1.18 (0.71–1.97)0.23
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.00.51 (0.29–0.92)0.60 (0.34–1.04)0.79 (0.43–1.46)0.88
Processed red meat items
Sausage/salami/bolognag00.1–0.50.6–1.5>1.5
Events25353231
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.33 (0.79–2.24)1.77 (1.03–3.05)1.76 (1.02–3.05)0.06
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.27 (0.72–2.22)1.55 (0.84–2.88)1.60 (0.83–3.06)0.23
Baconh00.1–0.5>0.5
Events393648
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.06 (0.67–1.68)1.50 (0.97–2.32)0.07
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.00.97 (0.58–1.60)1.13 (0.66–1.93)0.62
Hot dogsi00.1–0.5>0.5
Events414933
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.11 (0.73–1.70)1.39 (0.86–2.24)0.19
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.01 (0.64–1.62)1.17 (0.68–2.02)0.57
Poultry items
Chicken or turkey without skinj<11–1.41.5–2.4≥2.5
Events55132827
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.00.54 (0.30–1.00)0.94 (0.59–1.50)0.90 (0.56–1.45)0.97
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.00.60 (0.32–1.12)1.10 (0.67–1.82)0.96 (0.57–1.62)0.75
Chicken or turkey with skink00.1–0.50.6–1>1
Events48341922
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.19 (0.76–1.86)1.18 (0.69–2.02)1.52 (0.91–2.55)0.12
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.16 (0.72–1.85)1.29 (0.72–2.30)1.36 (0.77–2.40)0.27
Chicken or turkey sandwichesl<0.50.5–0.91–1.4≥1.5
Events22362330
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.18 (0.69–2.01)1.44 (0.79–2.62)1.31 (0.74–2.30)0.45
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.22 (0.70–2.10)1.52 (0.81–2.84)1.55 (0.85–2.85)0.20
Chicken or turkey hot dogsm0>0
Events7053
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.21 (0.84–1.75)0.30
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.22 (0.84–1.78)0.30
  • aCalculated using the median of each category as a continuous term.

  • bOne serving = 1 hamburger patty.

  • cModel 1 adjusted for age at diagnosis (continuous, y), time since diagnosis (continuous, y), and energy (quartiles, kcal/d).

  • dModel 2 adjusted for covariates in Model 1 plus Gleason sum (<7, 7, ≥7), clinical T-stage (T1, T2, T3), primary treatment (radical prostatectomy, radiation, active surveillance/other, androgen deprivation therapy), BMI (<25, 25–29.9, ≥30 kg/m2), smoking (current, former, not current with unknown history, never), vigorous activity (quartiles, MET-h/wk), and quartile ranks of prediagnostic intake of the exposure of interest (except for chicken or turkey sandwiches). All unprocessed red meat items were adjusted for each other; all processed red meat items were adjusted for each other; and poultry items were adjusted for each other.

  • eOne serving = 1 beef, pork, or lamb sandwich or 1 serving of a mixed dish (e.g., stew, casserole, lasagna, etc.).

  • fOne serving = 113 to 170 g of beef, pork, or lamb as a main dish (e.g., ham, chops, steak, roast).

  • gOne serving = 1 salami, bologna, or other processed meat sandwich or 57 g (approx. 2 links) of other processed meats (e.g., sausage, kielbasa, etc.).

  • hOne serving = 2 slices of bacon.

  • iOne serving = 1 beef or pork hot dog.

  • jOne serving = 85 g of other chicken or turkey, without skin.

  • kOne serving = 85 g of other chicken or turkey, with skin.

  • lOne serving = 1 chicken or turkey sandwich. Chicken or turkey sandwiches were first asked about on the 1998 questionnaire; therefore, follow-up for this item started in 1998 (events = 111; 10,379 person-y) and we were unable to adjust for prediagnostic intake.

  • mOne chicken or turkey hot dog. Chicken or turkey hot dogs were first asked about on the 1994 questionnaire; therefore, prediagnostic intake was estimated using data from the 1994 questionnaire.