Table 2.

Changes in serum and urine biomarkers and anthropometrics

Western diet post-intervention minus pre-interventionFish oil diet post-intervention minus pre-interventionP
Body weight (kg)−1.7 ± 0.3−2.5 ± 0.30.06
% of body fat−0.5 ± 0.4−0.76 ± 0.30.84
% of lean body mass−0.5 ± 0.4−0.8 ± 0.30.58
IGF-1 (ng/mL)−0.4 ± 4.38.8 ± 6.20.25
IGF BP-1 (ng/mL)3.3 ±1.93.8 ± 1.60.84
IGF BP-3 (ng/mL)16.4 ± 35.3−62.8 ± 37.50.14
Cholesterol (mg/dL)−10.4 ± 4.4−31.7 ± 7.00.02
LDL (mg/dL)−4.1 ± 3.4−15.2 ± 7.20.22
HDL (mg/dL)−2.9 ±1.5−5.2 ± 1.10.24
Triglycerides (mg/dL)−13.6 ± 14.8−56.5 ± 12.50.03
Cholesterol non-HDL (mg/dL)3.5 ± 5.4−18.1 ± 10.30.13
PSA (mg/mL)−0.09 ± 0.30.08 ± 0.40.53
Insulin (μU/mL)−0.1 ± 1.2−2.7 ± 1.20.17
PGEM/creatinine ratio0.3 ± 1.5−2.1 ± 20.36

NOTE: The data represent the mean ± SEM for each diet group.