Table 2.

Eicasanoids levels in normal mucosa in participants at normal risk for colorectal cancer [mean (SD)]

Placebo, n = 16Ginger, n = 14
EicosanoidBaseline28-day follow-upMean % change (SD) BTWN baseline and week 4cBaseline28-day follow-upMean% change (SD) BTWN baseline and week 4P
Normalized to protein (pg/μg)
PGE29.1 (10.5)8.6 (6.9)31.9 (89.8)12.9 (10.1)10.8 (10.0)−6.7 (51.6)0.16a
5-HETE0.6 (0.4)0.9 (1.1)54.9 (190.5)0.8 (0.7)0.9 (0.9)29.8 (110.7)0.67a
12-HETE0.8 (0.7)1.5 (2.8)71.5 (158.8)0.8 (0.6)1.3 (2.1)47.5 (175.4)0.70a
15-HETE7.4 (5.0)12.7 (22.0)63.3 (171.0)8.2 (5.1)11.4 (19.3)15.3 (109.8)0.31b
13-HODE22.1 (15.4)22.4 (15.3)17.7 (75.0)32.8 (21.8)27.7 (23.1)2.1 (80.1)0.34b
AA (ng/pg)0.7 (0.4)0.8 (0.6)24.1 (84.7)0.7 (0.3)1.3 (1.3)163.6 (384.8)0.17a
Normalized to AA (ng/μg)
PGE213.1 (11.5)11.5 (7.6)26.4 (96.0)18.2 (12.1)12.9 (12.2)−28.0 (37.9)0.05a
5-HETE1.0 (1.0)1.0 (0.6)21.5 (58.5)1.2 (0.8)10.4 (0.7)−1.9 (51.5)0.09b
12-HETE1.2 (1.0)1.4 (1.0)41.0 (57.8)1.2 (0.8)1.3 (1.1)7.8 (77.9)0.06b
15-HETE9.3 (5.9)11.2 (7.9)26.7 (61.7)11.0 (6.1)9.6 (8.2)−15.8 (43.2)0.04b
13-HODE37.1 (34.2)32.5 (20.8)9.7 (69.8)50.6 (34.4)38.1 (32.3)−16.1 (43.8)0.24a
  • aIndependent t test or

  • bMann–Whitney U test, as appropriate, on the difference between mean percent change between baseline and day 28.

  • cMean percent change between baseline and week 4 is calculated as [(eicosanoid at time 2/eicosanoid at time 1)/eicosanoid at time 1)] per participant and then an average is obtained. Mean percent change may not seem reflective of change in baseline and 28-day follow-up mean values. This is due to the large amount of variability in the baseline measures.