Table 2.

Relative hazard of lethal prostate cancer among 27,607 male health professionals by red meat, poultry, and egg intake (1994–2008)

Servings/wkPa
Total red meatb< 33–4.95–7.9≥ 8
Events46505449
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.38 (0.91–2.08)1.26 (0.83–1.90)1.31 (0.83–2.06)0.35
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.27 (0.84–1.93)1.10 (0.72–1.70)1.07 (0.66–1.75)0.99
Total unprocessed red meate< 22–3.43.5–4.9≥ 5
Events50634442
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.35 (0.92–1.98)1.26 (0.82–1.93)0.85 (0.54–1.34)0.34
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.18 (0.78–1.78)1.02 (0.63–1.62)0.64 (0.38–1.06)0.03
Total processed red meatf< 0.50.5–1.41.5–2.9≥3
Events34635151
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.31 (0.86–2.01)1.18 (0.75–1.85)1.56 (0.98–2.48)0.11
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.29 (0.82–2.02)1.09 (0.66–1.80)1.52 (0.89–2.61)0.20
Total poultryg< 1.51.5–2.42.5–3.4≥3.5
Events39703753
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.09 (0.73–1.63)0.74 (0.47–1.17)1.06 (0.68–1.63)0.82
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.14 (0.76–1.71)0.79 (0.49–1.25)1.15 (0.74–1.78)0.89
Eggsh< 0.50.5–1.41.5–2.4≥2.5
Events30645055
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.35 (0.87–2.09)1.50 (0.94–2.39)1.87 (1.17–2.96)0.009
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.33 (0.85–2.07)1.49 (0.93–2.37)1.81 (1.13–2.89)0.01
  • aCalculated using the median of each category as a continuous term.

  • bOne serving of total red meat = 1 beef or pork hot dog; 2 slices of bacon; salami, bologna, or other processed meat sandwich; 57 g or 2 links of other processed meats (e.g., sausage, kielbasa, etc.); 1 hamburger patty; beef, pork, or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish (e.g., stew, casserole, lasagna, etc.); 113 to 170 g of pork as a main dish (e.g., ham or chops); or 113 to 170 g of beef or lamb as a main dish (e.g., steak, roast).

  • cAdjusted for age (continuous) and energy (quartiles, kcal/d).

  • dAdjusted for age (continuous), energy (quartiles, kcal/d), BMI (<25, 25–29.9, ≥30 kg/m2), smoking (never, not current with unknown history, former, current), vigorous activity (MET-h/wk; quartiles), and lycopene intake (quartiles). All red meat categories and poultry were adjusted for eggs. Unprocessed and processed red meat were adjusted for each other.

  • eOne serving of total unprocessed red meat = 1 hamburger patty; beef, pork, or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish (e.g., stew, casserole, lasagna, etc.); 113 to 170 g of pork as a main dish (e.g., ham or chops); or 113 to 170 g of beef or lamb as a main dish (e.g., steak, roast).

  • fOne serving of total processed red meat = 1 beef or pork hot dog; 2 slices of bacon; salami, bologna, or other processed meat sandwich; 57 g or 2 links of other processed meats (e.g., sausage, kielbasa, etc.).

  • gOne serving of total poultry = 1 chicken or turkey hot dog; chicken or turkey sandwich; 85 g of other chicken or turkey, with skin; or 85 g of other chicken or turkey, without skin.

  • hOne serving of eggs = 1 egg with yolk.