Table 4.

Postdiagnostic consumption of red meat, poultry, and eggs and relative hazard of lethal prostate cancer among 3,127 men diagnosed with clinically localized or regional prostate cancer (1994–2008)

Servings/wkPa
Total red meatb<33–4.95–7.9≥8
Events33233532
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.03 (0.60–1.77)1.32 (0.80–2.18)1.38 (0.81–2.37)0.19
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.00.97 (0.55–1.70)1.20 (0.69–2.10)1.13 (0.60–2.10)0.66
Total unprocessed red meate<22–3.43.5–4.9≥5
Events38292234
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.00.96 (0.58–1.56)1.08 (0.62–1.88)1.34 (0.80–2.26)0.22
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.00.74 (0.43–1.27)0.84 (0.45–1.55)0.94 (0.52–1.70)0.88
Total processed red meatf<0.50.5–1.41.5–2.9≥3
Events23244234
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.00.76 (0.43–1.35)1.41 (0.84–2.37)1.40 (0.81–2.44)0.04
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.00.78 (0.42–1.44)1.47 (0.80–2.70)1.45 (0.73–2.87)0.08
Total poultryg<1.51.5–2.42.5–3.4≥3.5
Events20322051
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.01.09 (0.62–1.93)1.22 (0.65–2.30)1.45 (0.85–2.49)0.12
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.01.28 (0.72–2.28)1.55 (0.81–2.97)1.69 (0.96–2.99)0.07
Eggsh<0.50.5–1.41.5–2.4≥2.5
Events26342835
Model 1 HR (95% CI)c1.00.76 (0.46–1.28)1.29 (0.74–2.23)1.14 (0.68–1.92)0.17
Model 2 HR (95% CI)d1.00.74 (0.44–1.25)1.06 (0.60–1.88)0.95 (0.55–1.64)0.62
  • aCalculated using the median of each category as a continuous term.

  • bOne serving of total red meat = 1 beef or pork hot dog; 2 slices of bacon; salami, bologna, or other processed meat sandwich; 57 g or 2 links of other processed meats (e.g., sausage, kielbasa, etc.); 1 hamburger patty; beef, pork, or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish (e.g., stew, casserole, lasagna, etc.); 113 to 170 g of pork as a main dish (e.g., ham or chops); or 113 to 170 g of beef or lamb as a main dish (e.g., steak, roast).

  • cModel 1 adjusted for age at diagnosis (continuous, y), time since diagnosis (continuous, y), and energy (quartiles, kcal/d).

  • dModel 2 adjusted for covariates in Model 1 plus Gleason sum (<7, 7, ≥7), clinical T-stage (T1, T2, T3), primary treatment (radical prostatectomy, radiation, active surveillance/other, androgen deprivation therapy), BMI (<25, 25–29.9, ≥30 kg/m2), smoking (current, former, not current with unknown history, never), vigorous activity (quartiles, MET-h/wk), and prediagnostic intake of the exposure of interest (quartiles). Unprocessed red meat was adjusted for processed red meat.

  • eOne serving of total unprocessed red meat = 1 hamburger patty; beef, pork, or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish (e.g., stew, casserole, lasagna, etc.); 113 to 170 g of pork as a main dish (e.g., ham or chops); or 113 to 170 g of beef or lamb as a main dish (e.g., steak, roast).

  • fOne serving of total processed red meat = 1 beef or pork hot dog; 2 slices of bacon; salami, bologna, or other processed meat sandwich; 57 g or 2 links of other processed meats (e.g., sausage, kielbasa, etc.).

  • gOne serving of total poultry = 1 chicken or turkey hot dog; chicken or turkey sandwich; 85 g of other chicken or turkey, with skin; or 85 g of other chicken or turkey, without skin.

  • hOne serving of eggs = 1 egg with yolk.