Table 3.

Baseline age-standardized characteristics of 3,127 male health professionals diagnosed with clinically localized or regional prostate cancer according to their red meat, egg, and poultry intake after diagnosis

Red meataPoultrybEggsc
Servings/wk<3≥8<1.5≥3.5<0.5≥2.5
Age at diagnosis, mean (SD), y69.2 (7.5)69.0 (7.1)70.0 (7.1)68.2 (7.6)68.6 (7.2)69.5 (7.2)
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m225.1 (3.1)26.4 (3.3)25.8 (3.5)25.6 (3.1)25.1 (2.9)26.3 (3.5)
Vigorous activity, mean (SD), MET-h/wk18.2 (29.6)9.8 (22.4)12.1 (22.8)15.3 (27.8)16.4 (26.2)11.8 (24.4)
White, (%)90.592.990.192.892.493.0
Current smokers, (%)0.98.24.73.42.05.9
History of diabetes mellitus, (%)4.35.54.83.84.05.4
Family history of prostate cancer, (%)19.520.121.320.220.820.6
Clinical T-stage, (%)d
T166.161.465.866.066.762.3
T231.436.530.731.931.235.5
T3a2.62.23.62.12.02.2
Gleason sum, (%)d
≤654.551.653.653.954.452.8
733.535.934.432.633.335.5
≥89.09.49.410.88.59.6
Missing3.03.22.62.73.72.1
PSA at diagnosis, (%)d
<4 ng/mL11.911.012.010.812.011.6
4–9.9 ng/mL61.357.560.462.459.959.5
10–19.9 ng/mL17.419.216.417.816.919.7
≥20 ng/mL6.68.68.36.87.57.1
Missing2.73.82.92.33.82.2
Treatment, (%)d
Radical prostatectomy46.447.445.047.649.443.8
Radiation therapy39.735.238.737.937.542.4
Hormonal therapy3.46.43.95.23.84.3
Other/active surveillance10.410.912.49.29.39.6
Dietary intakes, mean (SD), servings/wke
Red meat2.4 (2.3)9.1 (4.0)5.8 (4.2)5.1 (3.7)3.5 (3.4)6.9 (4.1)
Eggs0.9 (1.5)1.9 (2.6)1.6 (2.4)1.2 (1.9)0.3 (0.8)3.0 (3.2)
Poultry3.4 (2.6)2.4 (1.6)1.4 (1.3)3.9 (2.4)3.3 (2.5)2.7 (1.9)
Fish3.1 (2.5)1.8 (1.4)2.0 (1.9)2.8 (2.1)2.9 (2.4)2.1 (1.7)
Dairyf13.6 (9.0)14.0 (9.5)16.2 (10.9)12.9 (8.0)13.0 (8.8)14.9 (9.8)
Tomato sauce1.2 (1.3)0.8 (0.9)1.0 (1.1)1.1 (1.1)1.2 (1.2)0.9 (0.9)
Coffee12.8 (13.7)14.0 (13.2)15.0 (15.7)13.2 (12.7)12.1 (13.7)14.3 (13.4)
  • aOne serving of total red meat = 1 beef or pork hot dog; 2 slices of bacon; salami, bologna, or other processed meat sandwich; 57 g or 2 links of other processed meats (e.g., sausage, kielbasa, etc.); 1 hamburger patty; beef, pork, or lamb as a sandwich or mixed dish (e.g., stew, casserole, lasagna, etc.); 113 to 170 g of pork as a main dish (e.g., ham or chops); or 113 to 170 g of beef or lamb as a main dish (e.g., steak, roast).

  • bOne serving of total poultry = 1 chicken or turkey hot dog; chicken or turkey sandwich; 85 g of other chicken or turkey, with skin; or 85 g of other chicken or turkey, without skin.

  • cOne serving of eggs = 1 egg with yolk.

  • dPercentages may not add to 100% due to rounding.

  • eStandardized to a 2,000 kcal/d diet.

  • fDairy includes: skim milk; 1 or 2% milk; whole milk; cream; frozen yogurt, sherbet, or low-fat ice cream; regular ice cream; yogurt; butter; cottage or ricotta cheese; cream cheese; and other cheese.