Table 3.

Associations between individual YDR risk factors and prevalence of ACN

Risk factorPatients, n (%)Patients with ACN, n (%)OR (95% CI)
Body mass index
 ≤302,079 (63)119 (5.7)Referent
 >301,238 (37)65 (5.2)0.9 (0.7–1.2)
Height
 Men ≤ 5′10″, Women ≤ 5′7″2,542 (77)123 (4.8)Referent
 Men > 5′10″, Women > 5′7″775 (23)61 (7.9)a1.7 (1.2–2.3)
Aspirin use, most days >15 y
 No3,274 (99)182 (5.6)Referent
 Yes43 (1)2 (4.6)0.8 (0.2–3.5)
Duration of birth control pill use
 Never/<5 y1,213 (74)50 (4.1)Referent
 ≥5 y422 (26)17 (4.0)1.0 (0.6–1.7)
Duration of hormone replacement therapy
 Never/<5 y1,570 (96)65 (4.1)Referent
 ≥5 y65 (4)2 (3.1)0.7 (0.2–3.1)
Red meat intake, ≥3 servings/wk
 No2,309 (70)120 (5.2)Referent
 Yes1,008 (30)64 (6.4)1.2 (0.9–1.7)
Servings of alcohol on a typical day
 <23,022 (91)152 (5.0)Referent
 ≥2295 (9)32 (10.8)a2.3 (1.5–3.4)
Multivitamin use ≥4 d/wk
 No2,070 (62)116 (5.6)Referent
 Yes1,247 (38)68 (5.4)1.0 (0.7–1.3)
Calcium “sufficient”c,d
 Yes893 (27)46 (5.2)Referent
 No2,424 (73)138 (5.7)1.1 (0.8–1.6)
Daily vitamin D supplement ± calciume
 No2,535 (77)144 (5.7)Referent
 Yes769 (23)39 (5.1)0.9 (0.6–1.3)
Moderate physical activity ≥30 min daily
 No914 (28)51 (5.6)Referent
 Yes2,403 (72)133 (5.5)1.0 (0.7–1.4)
  • aThe denominator is the number of patients with or without the risk factor.

  • bP< 0.002 by χ2 analyses.

  • cCalcium “sufficient” defined by daily use of a calcium supplement or daily intake of ≥3 servings of milk/dairy.

  • dData missing for 824 patients who completed prior version of YDR risk assessment tool.

  • eDaily vitamin D group includes patients who took a multivitamin.