Table 1.

Histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract in ad libitum, VF−, and caloric-restricted female mice

Ad libitumVF−Caloric restriction
Hyperplasia, crypt epithelialc0.20 ± 0.130.18 ± 0.130.07 ± 0.07
Dysplasiad0.20 ± 0.130.27 ± 0.150.21 ± 0.11
Microadenomasd0.30 ± 0.15a1.27 ± 0.30b0.77 ± 0.21ab
Carcinomasd0.30 ± 0.150.36 ± 0.150.46 ± 0.17

NOTE: Data are mean ± SE. Different letters (a, b, ab) denote a significant difference between groups, P < 0.05.

cValue based on the pathologic severity using a 1–4 scale, with 4 being most severe.

dValue indicates the number of identified foci per section.