Table 2.

Histopathology of the gastrointestinal tract in ad libitum, VF−, and caloric-restricted male mice

Ad libitumVF−Caloric restriction
Hyperplasia, crypt epithelialc0.66 ± 0.19b0.11 ± 0.11a0.63 ± 0.30b
Dysplasiad0.33 ± 0.14a0.67 ± 0.37a1.13 ± 0.52b
Microadenomasd2.08 ± 0.31b2.44 ± 0.50b0.75 ± 0.25a
Carcinomasd0.25 ± 0.180.78 ± 0.320.46 ± 0.17

NOTE: Data are mean ± SE. Different letters (a, b) denote a significant difference between groups, P < 0.05.

cDenotes the severity score, based on a 1–4 scale (4 being most severe).

dDenotes the number of foci per section.