Table 3.

The association between lung cancer and raw garlic consumption frequency stratified by major factors

Nevera<2 times/week≥2 times/week
Stratification variablesCase/controlCase/controlAdjusted OR (95% CI)bCase/controlAdjusted OR (95% CI)bPtrendb
All raw garlic704/2,423594/1,6370.92 (0.79–1.08)126/4830.56 (0.44–0.72)<0.001
Study area
 Dafeng515/1,954101/5200.71 (0.56–0.92)9/590.43 (0.20–0.91)0.001
 Ganyu189/469493/1,1171.15 (0.94–1.42)117/4240.66 (0.50–0.88)0.013
Tobacco smoking
 Never smoker194/1,095165/5910.95 (0.72–1.26)35/1740.67 (0.43–1.05)0.137
 All smokers510/1,328429/1,0460.87 (0.73–1.05)91/3090.56 (0.42–0.74)0.000
 <30 y129/575119/4160.97 (0.69–1.36)14/970.42 (0.22–0.80)0.046
 ≥30 y381/753310/6300.86 (0.69–1.08)77/2120.58 (0.41–0.80)0.002
Alcohol drinking status
 Never or seldom427/1,572343/9400.98 (0.80–1.19)67/2700.59 (0.42–0.81)0.010
 Often277/851251/6970.86 (0.67–1.10)59/2130.56 (0.38–0.82)0.005
Factory nearby
 No571/2,076533/1,4970.98 (0.83–1.16)112/4480.60 (0.46–0.78)0.002
 Yes120/30153/1210.73 (0.45–1.17)13/280.37 (0.16–0.89)0.024
High-temperature cooking oil
 No420/1,687410/1,1691.02 (0.84–1.24)81/3380.57 (0.41–0.78)0.006
 Yes284/736184/4680.80 (0.62–1.03)45/1450.57 (0.38–0.85)0.004
Consumption of fried food
 No455/1,714163/6720.81 (0.65–1.02)33/1530.64 (0.41–0.98)0.016
 Yes249/709431/9650.92 (0.74–1.14)93/3300.49 (0.36–0.67)<0.001
Poor ventilation in kitchen
 No288/1,080222/6590.92 (0.72–1.18)48/2050.52 (0.35–0.78)0.007
 Yes416/1,343372/9780.92 (0.75–1.12)78/2780.58 (0.42–0.79)0.003
Family history of lung cancer
 No661/2,343572/1,6130.92 (0.79–1.08)123/4770.57 (0.44–0.73)<0.001
 Yes43/8022/241.09 (0.48–2.46)3/60.26 (0.04–1.63)0.430
Green tea drinking
 No528/1,790358/9500.86 (0.71–1.04)66/2880.44 (0.32–0.60)<0.001
 Yes128/430210/5841.11 (0.83–1.50)48/1720.77 (0.50–1.19)0.410
Exercise 10 years ago
 No608/2,074410/1,1480.84 (0.70–1.00)93/3210.54 (0.40–0.72)<0.001
 Yes96/349184/4891.28 (0.92–1.77)33/1620.67 (0.41–1.10)0.332
  • aThe reference group.

  • bAdjusted on age (continuous), gender (male = 1, female = 0), education level (illiteracy = 1, primary = 2, middle = 3, high = 4, college = 5), income (Yuan/year) 10 years ago (continuous), BMI (continuous), family history of lung cancer (yes = 1, no = 0, except for variable of family history of lung cancer), pack-year of smoking (continuous, except for variable of tobacco smoking), ethanol consumption (mL/week, continuous, except for variable of alcohol drinking status), and study area (Dafeng = 1, Ganyu = 2, except for variable of study area).