Table 2.

Characteristics of WHI-OS participants, by ACS cancer prevention guidelines score (n = 65,838)

ACS cancer prevention guidelines score
Participant characteristic0–3 (n = 23,885)4–5 (n = 28,740)6–8 (n = 13,213)
Demographics
 Age, mean ± SD, y62.8 ± 7.263.5 ± 7.363.4 ± 7.4
 Race/ethnicity, %
  Non-Hispanic white (NHW)84.085.787.1
  Hispanic3.793.172.26
  Black9.106.334.73
  Asian1.623.384.53
  Native American0.460.340.30
  Other1.081.081.07
 Education, %
  ≤High school graduate25.519.014.4
  Some college39.235.732.6
  ≥College35.345.353.0
Body size, mean ± SDa
 BMI at age 18 y, kg/m221.1 ± 3.120.4 ± 2.520.1 ± 2.0
 BMI at baseline, kg/m230.7 ± 5.725.8 ± 4.223.4 ± 2.7
 Weight change from age 18 y to baseline, kg23.7 ± 14.113.1 ± 11.07.63 ± 7.9
 Height at baseline, cm161.8 ± 6.2161.9 ± 6.3162.2 ± 6.3
Physical activity (MET h/wk), mean ± SD5.24 ± 6.314.7 ± 13.327.6 ± 15.3
Diet, mean ± SD
 Total energy, kcal/d1663 ± 6491533 ± 5671492 ± 525
 Fruit and vegetables, servings/d3.6 ± 1.94.5 ± 2.15.6 ± 2.3
 Total carotenoids, μg/d9540 ± 527811,305 ± 607013,949 ± 7011
 Red and processed meat, servings/d0.90 ± 0.640.62 ± 0.500.40 ± 0.38
 Whole grains, servings/d0.69 ± 0.620.86 ± 0.661.04 ± 0.71
 Proportion of grains consumed as whole grains0.31 ± 0.200.38 ± 0.210.45 ± 0.20
Alcohol
 Nondrinker at baseline, %20.329.941.5
 Intake among drinkers (drinks/wk), mean ± SD4.2 ± 6.83.5 ± 5.42.4 ± 3.3
Smoking pack-years, %
 0 (never smoked)47.953.357.3
 <514.515.015.7
 5–<1914.714.713.8
 20+22.917.113.2
Multivitamin use at baseline, %37.843.547.6
Medication use, %
 NSAIDb use at baseline23.017.913.8
 Aspirin use at baseline20.821.720.4
 Unopposed estrogen
  Never used63.161.963.0
  Past user11.111.411.4
  Current user25.726.725.7
 Estrogen + progestin
  Never used73.668.164.6
  Past user8.128.829.07
  Current user18.323.126.4
Parous (ever had a full-term pregnancy), %
 No10.410.210.1
 Yes79.579.579.7
 Unknown10.010.310.2
Cancer screening history, %
 Ever had a mammogram96.697.597.9
 Ever had a colonoscopy/sigmoidoscopy50.854.756.6
Family history of cancer, %
 No32.132.132.9
 Yes63.663.963.6
 Unknown4.354.033.47
Have current healthcare provider, %94.595.595.3
  • aHeight/weight data were deemed unreliable if the difference between the 2 measurements (18 years and baseline) were >4 SDs beyond the mean.

  • bIncludes NSAID combinations.