Table 5.

Multiple regression analysis for biomarkers (adjusted for creatinine)

CovariatesCoefficent (SE)P
Dependent variable = TNE nmol/mg creatinine (N = 351) R2 = 0.32
 Intercept−10.6 (7.8)0.175
 Number of years using snuff daily1.3 (0.3)<0.001
 Tins per week4.8 (1.5)0.002
 Mean daily dip duration (hours)7.2 (0.9)<0.001
Covariatesexp(coeff) (95% CI)P
Dependent variable = total NNAL pmol/mg creatininea (N = 345) R2 = 0.49
 Number of years using snuff daily1.02 (1.01–1.03)<0.001
 Tins per week1.13 (1.09–1.18)<0.001
 Mean daily dip duration (hours)1.13 (1.10–1.16)<0.001
 Constituent yield: NNK μg/g wet wt1.32 (1.16–1.51)<0.001
Covariatesexp(coeff) (95% CI)P
Dependent variable = total NNN pmol/mg creatininea (N = 337) R2 = 0.40
 Number of years using snuff daily1.02 (1.01–1.03)0.001
 Tins per week1.10 (1.05–1.15)<0.001
 Mean daily dip duration (hours)1.14 (1.11–1.17)<0.001
 Constituent yield: NNN μg/g wet wt1.12 (1.06–1.17)<0.001

NOTE: The model contains only the covariates that were significant in the final regression (Table 4) with a p-value < 0.05. For total NNN/creatinine, one subject with NNN >60 was excluded from the analysis.

  • aAnalyzed in the logarithmic scale.