Table 1.

Matched baseline clinical, biologic, and pathologic characteristics of the randomly assigned groups

Placebo (n = 40)Sulforaphane (n = 38)P
Age, yMean ± SD70.4 ± 6,868.8 ± 6,40.291
Weight, kgMean ± SD76.8 ± 9.381.7 ± 13.20.061
BMI, kg/m2Mean ± SD26.5 ± 2.727.8 ± 4.10.110
Prostatectomy alonen (%)16 (40%)13 (34%)0.570
Prostatectomy + EBRTn (%)20 (50%)19 (50%)1
Prostatectomy + EBRT + hormone therapyn (%)4 (10%)6 (15.8%)0.444
Age at prostatectomy, yMean ± SD63.2 ± 6.061.8 ± 60.303
Years between prostatectomy and RTEMean ± SD3.6 ± 2.83.6 ± 2.70.982
Years between prostatectomy and intervention (M0)Mean ± SD7.1 ± 4.47 ± 3.50.997
Postoperative PSA0.433
 ≤0.1 ng/mLn (%)36 (90%)36 (94.7%)
 >0.1 ng/mLn (%; max)4 (10%; 0.15)2 (5.3%; 0.2)
PSA, ng/mLMean ± SD0.78 ± 0.680.74 ± 0.640.642
Median0,500,44
Range0.13–2.770.15–2.47
PSA DT moMean ± SD14.34 ± 7.5414.53 ± 80.900
Median12.1414.26
Range5.41–33.584.17–33.93
Log PSA slopeMean ± SD0.063 ± 0.030.067 ± 0.040.900
Median0.0570.049
[Q1–Q3] [Range][0.036-0.087] [0.021–0.128][0.036–0.093] [0.020–0.166]
Testosterone, ng/mLMean ± SD4.45 ± 1.394.64 ± 1.550.570
Median4.494.46
Range1.91–7.12.1–7.88
Tumor stage (pTNM)pT2a5 (12.5%)1 (2.6%)0.288
pT2b9 (22.5%)8 (21.1%)
pT2c14 (35%)10 (26.3%)
pT3a7 (17.5%)12 (31.6%)
pT3b5 (12.5%)7 (18.4%)
pN036 (90%)32 (84.2%)0.445
pNx4 (10%)6 (15.8%)
M040 (100%)38 (100%)1
SM024 (61.5%)21 (56.8%)0.535
SM114 (35.9%)15 (40.5%)
SM21 (2.6%)0 (0%)
Unknown SM data0 (0%)1 (2.7%)
Gleason scores and (grades)<65 (12.5%)5 (13.1%)0.390
6 (3 + 3)9 (22.5%)4 (10.5%)
7 (3 + 4)18 (45%)17 (44.7%)
7 (4 + 3)8 (20%)10 (26.3%)
8 (4 + 4)0 (0%)1 (2.6%)
8 (3 + 5)0 (0%)1 (2.6%)

NOTE: Tumor pathological TNM (pTNM) stage.

Abbreviations: DT, doubling time; EBRT, external beam radiotherapy; SM, surgical margins; SM0, no surgical margin; SM1, positive surgical margin ≤ 4 mm; SM2, positive surgical margin > 4 mm.