Table 1.

Analysis of tocopherols and their metabolites in the serum of ACI rats

TimeTreatmentγ-T (μmol/L)δ-T (μmol/L)α-T (μmol/L)γ-CEHC (μmol/L)δ-CEHC (μmol/L)α-CEHC (μmol/L)γ-CMBHC (μmol/L)δ-CMBHC (μmol/L)α-CMBHC (μmol/L)
6 weeksNegative control0.2 ± 0.00.1 ± 0.016.6 ± 2.10.1 ± 0.00.3 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.20.001 ± 0.00.01 ± 0.00.002 ± 0.0
E2 control0.3 ± 0.00.1 ± 0.040.2 ± 2.70.3 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.19.2 ± 2.20.002 ± 0.00.02 ± 0.00.03 ± 0.0
E2 + 0.05% γ-TmT1.6 ± 0.1***0.3 ± 0.0***44.9 ± 4.211.2 ± 0.3***10.1 ± 0.0***25.5 ± 3.3**0.1 ± 0.0***0.2 ± 0.0***0.03 ± 0.0
E2 + 0.1% γ-TmT3.7 ± 0.5***0.9 ± 0.1***48.5 ± 2.721.9 ± 2.8***19.3 ± 1.6***28.1 ± 4.5**0.2 ± 0.0**0.3 ± 0.0***0.03 ± 0.0
E2 + 0.3% γ-TmT3.0 ± 0.2***0.8 ± 0.1***44.1 ± 2.648.1 ± 11.7**43.5 ± 9.9**31.0 ± 7.1*0.5 ± 0.1*0.9 ± 0.1**0.06 ± 0.0
E2 + 0.5% γ-TmT5.9 ± 0.7***1.9 ± 0.3***37.0 ± 1.661.0 ± 3.8***52.4 ± 6.3****10.5 ± 4.21.4 ± 0.2**2.6 ± 0.4***0.04 ± 0.0
18 weeksNegative control0.2 ± 0.00.1 ± 0.023.1 ± 0.62.9 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.14.9 ± 0.40.02 ± 0.00.03 ± 0.00.3 ± 0.1
E2 control0.4 ± 0.10.1 ± 0.036.4 ± 1.75.3 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.18.1 ± 0.60.05 ± 0.00.02 ± 0.00.4 ± 0.0
E2 + 0.05% γ-TmT2.8 ± 0.5**0.8 ± 0.1**38.7 ± 1.950.3 ± 4.1***11.7 ± 1.1***11.2 ± 0.8*0.2 ± 0.0***0.2 ± 0.0***1.1 ± 0.1***
E2 + 0.1% γ-TmT3.7 ± 0.3***1.3 ± 0.2***60.3 ± 2.0***142.7 ± 11.5***35.1 ± 2.1***14.0 ± 0.7***0.5 ± 0.1***0.5 ± 0.0***2.3 ± 0.2***
E2 + 0.3% γ-TmT8.1 ± 1.2***3.3 ± 0.5***62.2 ± 2.6***268.5 ± 5.4***74.3 ± 1.6***20.2 ± 1.0***0.8 ± 0.1***1.1 ± 0.1***5.1 ± 0.2***
E2 + 0.5% γ-TmT8.2 ± 1.0***3.7 ± 0.5***50.9 ± 1.8***263.8 ± 11.9***75.9 ± 3.4***19.7 ± 1.1***0.7 ± 0.0***1.0 ± 0.1***5.0 ± 0.5***
31 weeksNegative control0.2 ± 0.00.1 ± 0.034.2 ± 1.71.9 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.15.5 ± 1.00.02 ± 0.00.06 ± 0.00.3 ± 0.1
E2 control0.3 ± 0.10.05 ± 0.038.6 ± 2.44.8 ± 1.11.1 ± 0.26.3 ± 1.10.03 ± 0.00.07 ± 0.00.4 ± 0.1
E2 + 0.05% γ-TmT1.6 ± 0.2***0.5 ± 0.1***43.0 ± 4.331.7 ± 3.0***8.1 ± 0.9***7.2 ± 1.10.1 ± 0.0**0.1 ± 0.0***0.8 ± 0.1*
E2 + 0.1% γ-TmT3.1 ± 0.6***0.9 ± 0.1***35.7 ± 4.760.3 ± 4.6***16.8 ± 1.1***9.2 ± 0.90.2 ± 0.0***0.2 ± 0.0***0.9 ± 0.1**
E2 + 0.3% γ-TmT8.1 ± 1.5***3.3 ± 0.7**49.3 ± 2.3*167.4 ± 19.9***50.7 ± 6.7***13.1 ± 1.7**0.4 ± 0.1***0.7 ± 0.1**2.4 ± 0.4***
E2 + 0.5% γ-TmT13.9 ± 2.6***6.7 ± 1.4**51.4 ± 3.9*261.9 ± 13.9***87.7 ± 4.7***14.9 ± 1.6**0.6 ± 0.1***1.3 ± 0.2***3.6 ± 0.6***

NOTE: The effect of γ-TmT supplementation on the levels of γ-, δ-, α-T, and their short chain CEHC and CMBHC metabolites in the serum (μmol/L) of ACI rats were analyzed at 6, 18, and 31 weeks. P values are compared with the E2 control of the respective time points. Statistical significance: *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01 and; ***, P < 0.001.