Total sample | Abstinent at 4 weeks | Smoking at 4 weeks | ||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

(n = 33) | (n = 16; EC use only) | (n = 17; dual users) | ||||||||||

Change | Change | Change | ||||||||||

Baseline | 4 weeks | Mean (95% CI)% | Baseline | 4 weeks | Mean (95% CI) | Baseline | 4 weeks | Mean (95% CI) | ||||

Mean (SD) | Mean (SD) | reduction^{a} | Sig | Mean (SD) | Mean (SD) | % reduction^{a} | Sig | Mean (SD) | Mean (SD) | % reduction^{a} | Sig | |

CO (ppm) | 19 (11) | 7 (7) | –12 (–16 to –8) 63% | P < 0.001 | 15 (8) | 3 (2) | –12 (–16 to –7) 80% | P < 0.001 | 23 (11) | 11 (8) | –12 (–19 to –6) 52% | P = 0.001 |

Urinary cotinine (ng/mg creatinine) | 1,655 (1469) | 1,063 (831) | –592 (–1,041 to –143) 36% | P = 0.011 | 1,073 (832) | 889 (959) | –184 (–733 to 365) 17% | P = 0.486 | 2,203 (1734) | 1,227 (679) | –976 (–1,682 to –270) 44% | P = 0.010 |

3-HPMA (ng/mg creatinine) | 2,046 (1,060) | 666 (664) | –1,380 (–1,742 to –1,018) 67% | P < 0.001 | 1,623 (850) | 343 (178) | –1,280 (–1,699 to –861) 79% | P < 0.001 | 2,443 (1,105) | 969 (807) | –1,474 (–2,101 to –847) 60% | P < 0.001 |

Abbreviation: Sig, statistical significance.

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^{a}Percentage reduction from baseline, calculated as the mean change/baseline mean × 100.