Table 2.

Changes in CO in expired breath (ppm), urinary cotinine and 3-HPMA levels (ng/mg creatinine) at baseline and after 4 weeks of EC use

Total sampleAbstinent at 4 weeksSmoking at 4 weeks
(n = 33)(n = 16; EC use only)(n = 17; dual users)
ChangeChangeChange
Baseline4 weeksMean (95% CI)%Baseline4 weeksMean (95% CI)Baseline4 weeksMean (95% CI)
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)reductionaSigMean (SD)Mean (SD)% reductionaSigMean (SD)Mean (SD)% reductionaSig
CO (ppm)19 (11)7 (7)–12 (–16 to –8) 63%P < 0.00115 (8)3 (2)–12 (–16 to –7) 80%P < 0.00123 (11)11 (8)–12 (–19 to –6) 52%P = 0.001
Urinary cotinine (ng/mg creatinine)1,655 (1469)1,063 (831)–592 (–1,041 to –143) 36%P = 0.0111,073 (832)889 (959)–184 (–733 to 365) 17%P = 0.4862,203 (1734)1,227 (679)–976 (–1,682 to –270) 44%P = 0.010
3-HPMA (ng/mg creatinine)2,046 (1,060)666 (664)–1,380 (–1,742 to –1,018) 67%P < 0.0011,623 (850)343 (178)–1,280 (–1,699 to –861) 79%P < 0.0012,443 (1,105)969 (807)–1,474 (–2,101 to –847) 60%P < 0.001

Abbreviation: Sig, statistical significance.

  • aPercentage reduction from baseline, calculated as the mean change/baseline mean × 100.