Table 2.

Geometric means (95% CIs) of baseline urinary benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde mercapturic acids, prostaglandin E2 metabolite (PGEM), and 8-iso-prostaglandin F (8-iso-PGF) in smokers stratified by demographic and lifestyle factors, The PEITC Intervention Study 2008–2013

NaBenzene SPMA (pmol/mg Cr)Acrolein HPMA (nmol/mg Cr)Crotonaldehye HMPMA (nmol/mg Cr)PGEM (pmol/mg Cr)8-iso-PGF (pmol/mg Cr)
All subjects812.36 (1.88–2.98)6.60 (5.80–7.48)4.62 (4.02–5.30)44.60 (39.12–50.84)0.84 (0.74–0.92)
Gender
 Male432.18 (1.58–3.00)5.78 (4.88–6.84)3.94 (3.28–4.74)54.62 (46.14–64.66)0.72 (0.62–0.84)
 Female382.60 (1.86–3.64)7.66 (6.40–9.18)5.52 (4.52–6.70)35.46 (29.62–42.42)0.98 (0.84–1.14)
P0.4620.0280.018<0.0010.006
Race
 Caucasians542.48 (1.86–3.30)6.94 (5.94–8.10)5.02 (4.24–5.94)41.24 (35.18–48.32)0.90 (0.78–1.02)
 Non-Caucasians272.16 (1.44–3.24)5.96 (4.78–7.40)3.90 (3.08–4.94)52.16 (41.68–65.30)0.72 (0.60–0.86)
P0.5900.2660.0910.0980.063
Age (years)
 <40332.22 (1.54–3.20)5.10 (4.24–6.14)3.66 (2.98–4.50)41.78 (34.00–51.32)0.72 (0.62–0.86)
 ≥40482.46 (1.82–3.34)7.86 (6.74–9.18)5.40 (4.54–6.42)46.64 (39.32–55.32)0.92 (0.80–1.06)
P0.6730.0010.0060.4220.039
Level of education
 High school or lower332.92 (2.04–4.18)6.92 (5.68–8.44)4.62 (3.72–5.74)46.66 (37.96–57.34)0.84 (0.70–1.00)
 College or higher482.04 (1.52–2.76)6.38 (5.40–7.52)4.60 (3.84–5.52)43.24 (36.44–51.30)0.84 (0.72–0.96)
P0.1440.5330.9850.5790.973
Body mass index (kg/m2)b
 <25262.26 (1.48–3.42)7.24 (5.46–9.08)5.22 (4.08–6.68)43.38 (34.30–54.88)0.78 (0.64–0.94)
 25–≤30262.62 (1.72–3.98)6.22 (4.96–7.82)3.94 (3.08–5.04)48.72 (38.52–61.62)0.80 (0.66–0.96)
 ≥30272.36 (1.56–3.56)6.40 (5.12–8.00)4.80 (3.76–6.12)41.48 (32.94–52.26)0.96 (0.80–1.16)
Ptrend0.8800.4510.6440.7830.120
Number of cigarettes per day
 <20362.20 (1.56–3.12)6.20 (5.12–7.50)4.28 (3.48–5.26)51.76 (42.68–62.76)0.80 (0.68–0.94)
 ≥20452.50 (1.84–3.42)6.92 (5.84–8.22)4.90 (4.06–5.90)39.58 (33.32–47.04)0.86 (0.74–1.00)
P0.5850.3960.3420.0460.444
Alcohol intakeb
 Never302.46 (1.68–3.60)6.74 (5.48–8.30)4.94 (3.92–6.20)47.12 (38.06–58.36)0.78 (0.66–0.92)
 Monthly or less262.34 (1.56–3.54)7.38 (5.90–9.22)4.68 (3.66–6.00)42.28 (33.60–53.20)0.92 (0.76–1.12)
 Weekly232.26 (1.46–3.48)5.94 (4.70–7.54)4.36 (3.36–5.66)46.90 (36.74–59.86)0.82 (0.66–1.00)
Ptrend0.7630.4910.4820.9320.674
  • aOne subject who did not provide a urine sample at baseline was excluded from all analyses.

  • bTwo additional subjects were excluded from this analysis due to their missing data on body mass index.