Table 2.

Change in levels of circulating levels of oxidative stress biomarkers, by intervention arm, using LOCF

Time pointsChangePa
Baseline12 MonthAbsoluteRelative change
BiomarkerStudy armnGM (95% CI)nGM (95% CI)changeb (%)12MΔ (I-C)cUnadjustedAdjustedd
Control8797.22 (89.33–105.8)8799.41 (91.97–107.4)2.19 (2.25)
Oxidized LDL (U/L)Diet118106.5 (100.3–113.1)118100.2 (94.11–106.7)−6.32 (−5.93)−8.510.080.09
Exercise116102.6 (95.32–110.5)116101.3 (94.63–108.4)−1.33 (−1.29)−3.520.470.60
Diet+Ex116100.9 (95.22–106.8)11693.31 (87.88–99.08)−7.56 (−7.49)−9.750.030.03
Control8739.7 (35.1–44.9)8737.4 (35.0–39.9)−2.31 (−5.81)
FOPe (FI milliunits/mL)Diet11836.2 (33.6–39.1)11841.6 (38.6–44.9)5.35 (14.77)0.010.00020.0001
Exercise11644.3 (38.8–50.6)11642.2 (37.1–48.0)−2.1 (−4.70)0.000.860.85
Diet + Ex11639.3 (36.3–42.6)11646.2 (42.0–50.8)6.9 (17.45)0.010.00010.0001
Control8356.23 (50.71–62.36)8354.55 (49.15–60.54)−1.68 (−2.99)
F2-Isoprostane (pg/mL)Diet10657.41 (52.06–63.31)10644.37 (39.26–50.14)−13.0 (−22.7)−11.40.00040.0002
Exercise10860.49 (55.07–66.45)10851.71 (46.56–57.4)−8.78 (−14.5)−7.100.030.01
Diet + Ex10854.10 (48.67–60.13)10841.38 (37.31–45.89)−12.7 (−23.5)−11.0<0.0000<0.0000
  • Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; GM, geometric mean.

  • aP for comparing the 12-month changes versus control group. P < 0.008 is considered significant due to multiple comparisons (Bonferroni correction).

  • bChange at 12-month from baseline.

  • cRelative difference of absolute change at 12 months from baseline between intervention and control arms.

  • dGEE model adjusted for age, baseline BMI (<30 kg/m2, ≥30 kg/m2) and race/ethnicity, and NSAID and statin use.

  • eAbsolute and relative changes appear as zero due to rounding.