Table 2.

Genes identified as showing differential expression between nulliparous and postpregnant patients

Mean nulliparous ± SDMean postpregnant ± SDt-test P value
Inflammation/immune-related
    CCL21Chemokine, cc motif, ligand 211 ± 1.42.7 ± 2.50.0003
    LBPLipopolysaccharide-binding protein*1 ± 0.74.1 ± 2.80.002
    SAA1/2Serum amyloid A1/A21 ± 0.61.4 ± 0.60.004
    IGKCImmunoglobulin κ1 ± 0.71.9 ± 1.10.006
    IGHDImmunoglobulin heavy δ chain1 ± 1.40.5 ± 0.80.007
Angiogenesis genes
    ANGPT1Angiopoietin 11 ± 0.71.5 ± 1.10.033
    VEGFAVascular endothelial growth factor1 ± 0.70.7 ± 0.30.036
ECM genes
    CDH1E-cadherin1 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.50.004
    TIMP2Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 21 ± 0.61.3 ± 0.60.035
    COL1A1Collagen, type I, α11 ± 0.60.8 ± 0.90.051
    TGFB3Transforming growth factor, β31 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.40.057
Breast cancer biomarkers
    ESR2Estrogen receptor, β1 ± 0.52.0 ± 1.60.003
    ESR1Estrogen receptor, α1 ± 0.90.5 ± 0.40.006
    PGRProgesterone receptor1 ± 0.80.6 ± 0.70.014
    ERBB2HER21 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.30.016
Housekeeping genes
    B2Mβ2-Microglobulin1 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.40.0002

NOTE: Postpregnant group included both recently pregnant (<2 y since pregnancy) and distantly pregnant (5-10 y since pregnancy) samples. Nulliparous, n = 20; postpregnant, n = 32.

  • *LBP was detected in 25% of nulliparous samples and 65% of postpregnant samples.