Table 1.

Characteristics of cases and controls

VariablesControl (n = 1,805)Case (n = 1,808)P*
Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
Age at baseline (y)63.58 (5.55)63.62 (5.54)0.60
Oxidized protein
    Oxidized protein, nmol/mL19.81 (3.74)19.83 (4.39)0.91
n (%)n (%)
Physical activity
    Sedentary314 (17.4)310 (17.2)0.52
    Light742 (41.3)748 (41.5)
    Moderate553 (30.8)593 (32.9)
    Active188 (10.5)150 (8.3)
Alcohol drinking (g/d)
    0415 (23.0)410 (22.6)0.60
    <301,236 (68.5)1,232 (68.1)
    ≥30154 (8.5)166 (9.1)
BMI
    Normal (BMI <25)449 (25.1)499 (27.9)0.54
    Overweight (BMI 25 to <30)944 (52.8)917 (51.2)
    Obese (BMI ≥30)394 (21.8)376 (20.8)
Education
    Grade school or some high school77 (4.3)72 (4.0)0.12
    High school graduate or GED273 (15.1)236 (13.1)
    Voc/training school, some college, college grad1,454 (80.6)1,499 (82.9)
Family history of prostate cancer384 (21.3)384 (21.2)0.98
Finasteride arm765 (42.4)764 (42.3)0.94
Fruit consumption (servings/d)
    <1561 (34.7)530 (34.0)0.79
    1 to <2581 (36.0)570 (36.6)
    2+473 (29.3)457 (29.4)
Race
    Nonwhite372 (20.6)130 (7.2)<0.0001
    Nonhispanic white1,433 (79.4)1,678 (92.8)
Smoking status
    Never619 (34.3)644 (35.6)0.48
    Former1,047 (58.0)1,041 (57.6)
    Current139 (7.7)123 (6.8)
Vegetable consumption (servings/d)
    <1211 (13.1)200 (12.9)0.94
    1 to <2595 (36.8)562 (36.1)
    2 to <3428 (26.5)441 (28.3)
    3+381 (23.6)354 (22.7)
  • *P values were calculated based on a two-sided t test, comparing cases to controls; unordered categorical P values were calculated based on a χ2 test; ordered categorical variables were assigned values 1/2/3, etc., and then treated as continuous variables to calculate P-trend values.

  • Controls were frequency matched to cases based on age, family history of prostate cancer, and treatment arm (finasteride or placebo).

  • Minorities were oversampled for the control population.