Table 3.

The association between energy balance and bladder cancer stratified by smoking status

VariablesOverall riskNever smokerFormer smokercurrent smokerPinteraction
Case/controlOR (95% CI)*PCase/controlOR (95% CI)*PCase/controlOR (95% CI)*PCase/ControlOR (95% CI)*P
Energy intake0.033
    Low219/258Reference73/119Reference99/121Reference47/18Reference
    Medium195/2590.95 (0.72-1.25)0.73349/1200.67 (0.42-1.06)0.086113/1141.35 (0.92-1.98)0.12833/250.62 (0.27-1.46)0.275
    High346/2591.60 (1.23-2.09)0.00177/1031.50 (0.96-2.36)0.076165/1331.60 (1.11-2.32)0.012104/232.31 (1.02-5.22)0.044
Ptrend<0.0010.10.0130.011
Physical activity0.189
    Intensive129/265Reference45/123Reference68/122Reference16/20Reference
    Medium325/3291.87 (1.42-2.47)<0.00191/1351.97 (1.24-3.14)0.004173/1691.69 (1.16-2.47)0.00661/253.15 (1.32-7.49)0.009
    Low325/2012.82 (2.10-3.79)<0.00171/922.17 (1.32-3.57)0.002148/872.87 (1.89-4.35)<0.001106/226.33 (2.68-14.97)<0.001
Ptrend<0.0010.003<0.001<0.001
BMI category0.687
    Normal236/233Reference59/100Reference110/113Reference67/20Reference
    Overweight367/3690.95 (0.73-1.23)0.67498/1630.85 (0.54-1.33)0.477195/1751.11 (0.77-1.58)0.57774/310.64 (0.30-1.38)0.257
    Obese177/1950.79 (0.59-1.07)0.13148/870.76 (0.45-1.27)0.29787/920.84 (0.55-1.28)0.40942/160.79 (0.33-1.86)0.584
Ptrend0.1360.2960.4430.565
  • *Adjusting for age, sex, tobacco smoking, energy intake, BMI, and physical activity where appropriate.