Table 1.

Basic characteristics of cases and controls

CharacteristicsCaseControlP
n = 803, n (%)n = 803, n (%)
Sex
    Men640 (79.70)639 (79.58)0.951*
    Women163 (20.30)164 (20.42)
Age (y)
    Mean (SD)64.73 (11.13)63.82 (10.88)0.098
Smoking
    Never212 (26.40)355 (44.21)<0.001*
    Former404 (50.31)381 (47.45)
    Current187 (23.29)67 (8.34)
Smoking pack-year
    Median (range)38 (0.05-176)22.5 (0.05-165)<0.001
Energy intake (Kcal/d)
    Median (range)2,218.95 (500.81-17,207.67)1,991.39 (350.13-7,354.53)<0.001
Energy intake category
    Low (<1,738 Kcal/d)219 (28.82)258 (33.25)<0.001*
    Medium (1,738-2,312 Kcal/d)195 (25.66)259 (33.38)
    High (≥2,313 Kcal/d)346 (45.53)259 (33.38)
Physical activity
    Intensive (≥25)129 (16.56)265 (33.33)<0.001*
    Medium (9-24)325 (41.72)329 (41.38)
    Low (<9)325 (41.72)201 (25.28)
BMI (kg/m2)
    Mean (SD)27.31 (4.59)27.51 (4.65)0.385
BMI category
    Normal (<25 kg/m2)236 (30.26)233 (29.23)0.700*
    Overweight (25-29 kg/m2)367 (47.05)369 (46.30)
    Obese (≥30 kg/m2)177 (22.69)195 (24.47)
  • 2 test.

  • Student's t test.

  • Kruskal-Wallis test.