Table 2.

Number (percent) of lung cancer cases according to extent of immunostaining for selected markers in tumor and adjacent uninvolved tissue, by trial intervention group

MarkerTotal casesPlaceboβ-CaroteneP*
Negative stainingPositive stainingNegative stainingPositive staining
≤5%6-20%21-50%>50%Any positive≤5%6-20%21-50%>50%Any positive
AP-1
    Tumor8028 (100)000049 (94)03 (6)03 (6)0.97
    Normal bronchioles2510 (100)000015 (100)00000.47
    Normal pneumocytes3715 (100)000022 (100)00000.99
Cyclin D1
    Tumor807 (25)9 (32)10 (36)2 (7)21 (75)20 (38)11 (21)18 (35)3 (6)32 (62)0.48
    Normal bronchioles2411 (100)000010 (77)2 (15)1 (8)03 (23)0.04
    Normal pneumocytes3013 (100)000013 (76)4 (24)004 (24)0.15
CYP1A1
    Tumor797 (25)2 (7)8 (29)11 (39)21 (75)12 (24)3 (6)19 (37)17 (33)39 (76)0.99
    Normal bronchioles207 (70)003 (30)3 (30)8 (80)002 (20)2 (20)0.99
    Normal pneumocytes4111 (69)03 (19)2 (13)5 (31)20 (80)1 (4)2 (8)2 (8)5 (20)0.41
CYP1A2
    Tumor7902 (7)7 (25)19 (68)28 (100)7 (14)4 (8)11 (22)29 (57)44 (86)0.19
    Normal bronchioles202 (29)02 (29)3 (43)5 (71)3 (23)0010 (77)10 (77)0.27
    Normal pneumocytes382 (14)09 (64)3 (21)12 (86)5 (21)016 (67)3 (13)19 (79)0.52
CYP2E1
    Tumor801 (4)1 (4)4 (14)22 (79)27 (96)10 (19)3 (6)11 (21)28 (54)42 (81)0.07
    Normal bronchioles323 (23)0010 (77)10 (77)2 (11)0017 (89)17 (89)0.67
    Normal pneumocytes513 (16)0016 (84)16 (84)2 (6)0030 (94)30 (94)0.89
Ki67
    Tumor798 (29)9 (32)8 (29)3 (11)20 (71)6 (12)18 (35)23 (45)4 (8)45 (88)0.13
    Normal bronchioles3213 (93)1 (7)001 (7)17 (94)1 (6)001 (6)0.76
    Normal pneumocytes4717 (100)000030 (100)00000.38
RAR-β
    Tumor7914 (50)05 (18)9 (32)14 (50)22 (43)5 (10)9 (18)15 (29)29 (57)0.86
    Normal bronchioles258 (73)003 (27)3 (27)12 (86)002 (14)2 (14)0.46
    Normal pneumocytes4218 (100)000023 (96)1 (4)001 (4)0.42
  • *From the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for differences in the extent of marker staining (continuous values) between intervention groups.