Table 1.

Baseline characteristics

Observation13-Cis RA13-Cis RA + o-toc.
All subjects
    n272226
    Mean age (range)59.9 (42-73)62.3 (45-80)64 (44-79)
    Female/male (%)8:19 (30:70)4:18 (18:82)7:19 (27:73)
    Smoking (e-x/current; %)15:13 (56:44)12:10 (55:45)15:11 (58.42)
    Mean pack years (range)56.S (30-105)71.7 (30-183)58.4 (0-130)
    Sputum (mild/mod+severe; %)8:19 (30:70)9:13 (41:59)10:14 (42:53)
    O2 use (no/yes' %)14:13 (52:48)14:8 (64:36)15:11 (58:42)
    FEV% (range)53.6 (25-103)58 (20-99)55.3 (24-123)
    FEV/FVC% (range)57.6 (30-82)55.7 (25-77)53.7 (27-87)
Current smokers
    n121011
    Mean age (range)56.6 (43-68)58.4 (45-70)59.4 (44-77)
    Female/male (%)4:8 (33:67)3:7 (30:70)5:6 (45:55)
    Mean pack years (range)58.7 (31-90)72.5 (30-168)66 (48-130)
    Sputum (mild/mod+severe; %)2:10 (17:83)2:8 (20:80)2:8 (20:80)
    O2 use (no/yes; %)7:5 (58:42)5:5 (50:50)6:5 (55:45)
    FEV% (range)52 (27-103)51.6 (30-99)61.7 (38-98)
    FEV/FVC% (range)56.8 (30-79)55.4 (25-70)59.2 (27-74)
Former smokers
    n151215
    Mean age (range)62.5 (42-73)65.5 (52-80)67.4 (54, 79)
    Female/male (%)4:11(27:73)1:11 (8:92)2:13 (13:87)
    Mean pack years (range)54.4 (30-105)71 (30-183)52.9 (0-80)
    Sputum (mild/mod+severe; %)6:9 (40:60)7:5 (58:42)8:6 (57:43)
    O2 use (no/yes; %)7:8 (47:53)9:3 (75:25)9:6 (60:40)
    FEV% (range)54.7 (25-101)63.2 (29-84)50.3 (24-123)
    FEV/FVC% (range)58.1 (30-82)56 (34-77)49 (27-87)

Abbreviation: 13-cis RA + α-toc, 13-cis RA + α tocopherol.