Table 4

Levels of p53 protein, PCNA expression (n = 41), and polyamine concentrations (n = 37) in forearm biopsy samples from topical vitamin E study participants

BaselineEnd of studyChangeP*
Mean % expressionSEMean % expressionSEMean % expressionSE
p53
 Placebo20.32.425.42.95.13.10.1215
 Treated21.12.920.12.1−1.03.3
PCNA
 Placebo8.41.09.01.10.61.50.4800
 Treated6.61.08.61.22.01.5
PolyaminesMean nmol/gSEMean nmol/gSEMean nmol/g% change SEP*
Putrescine
 Placebo120.837.73131.5910.1410.7612.20.0004
 Treated139.1210.6889.505.50−49.629.3
Spermidine
 Placebo292.1714.80309.9417.7717.7714.80.0074
 Treated302.1015.17259.611.40−42.7213.2
Spermine
 Placebo205.519.78213.5912.228.0813.10.0955
 Treated246.7710.26226.618.69−20.168.9
Total polyamines
 Placebo618.5128.55655.1234.5736.6133.50.0014
 Treated687.9829.13575.4921.05−112.4924.8
Spermidine to spermine ratio
 Placebo1.430.031.470.040.040.050.1048
 Treated1.260.061.150.04−0.110.05

NOTE: Information is included for only those participants for whom complete analytic specimen sets were available.

  • *Wilcoxon signed rank test on change variables.