Table 2

Clinical studies of resveratrol as a pure compound or given in beverages

Human subjectsObjectivesFindingsDoseRouteReferences
Healthy humans (10)*BioavailabilityPlasma-free and conjugates peak in 30 min; ∼25% recovered in urine over 24 h25 mg/personOralSoleas et al. (64)
Healthy males (12)BioavailabilityPeak glucuronide and sulfate conjugates appear in serum in 30 min; urinary 24-h excretion is 16-17% of the dose25 mg/70 kgOralGoldberg et al. (65)
Healthy males (3)/females (3)BioavailabilityAbsorption is 70% with plasma half-life of 9.2 h; mostly excreted in urine25 mg/personOral; i.vWalle et al. (66)
Healthy males (3)BioavailabilityPure and derivatives are detectable in plasma and urine; 25-50% resveratrol is recovered in urine during 24 h0.03, 0.5, 1 mg/kgOralMeng et al. (67)
Healthy humans (4)BioavailabilitySix major conjugate metabolites are detected in and separated from serum and urine1 g/personOralBoocock et al. (68)
Healthy humans (40)Phase I dose escalation pharmacokineticsDoes not exhibit adverse effects; peak plasma levels occur in 1.5 h; 77% of all urinary species excreted in 24 h0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 g/personOralBoocock et al. (69)
Healthy males (14)/females (11)BioavailabilityPure or glucuronide conjugate is found in serum; meal does not affect bioavailability3.4, 7.5, 33 μg/kgOralVitaglione et al. (70)
Healthy males (10)/females (10)Urinary excretionIncrease in total metabolites, which could be used as biomarkers for clinical studies0.36, 0.4, 2.6 mg/personOralZamora-Ross et al. (71)
  • *The number of human subjects is indicated in the parenthesis.