Table 1.

Alterations of intermediate biomarkers in Swiss albino mice 45 d after exposure to ECS since birth and 15 d after treatment with either PEITC or budesonide

BiomarkerTreatment of mice
ShamECSECS + PEITCECS + budesonide
Whole lung
    Bulky DNA adducts/108 N2.42 ± 0.269.05 ± 0.44*6.83 ± 0.36*,8.07 ± 0.25*
    8-oxodGuo/105 N1.54 ± 0.113.35 ± 0.17*2.43 ± 0.22*,1.53 ± 0.07
Bronchial epithelial cells
    PCNA (%)0.1 ± 0.040.8 ± 0.06*0.7 ± 0.07*0.6 ± 0.08*,§
    Apoptosis (%)0.2 ± 0.031.1 ± 0.10*0.7 ± 0.08*,0.6 ± 0.07*,
Bone marrow
    MN PCE (‰)3.0 ± 0.276.3 ± 0.65*5.9 ± 0.55*4.6 ± 0.38*,§
    PCE/NCE ratio1.2 ± 0.050.9 ± 0.04*1.0 ± 0.031.0 ± 0.04
Peripheral blood
    MN NCE (‰)2.6 ± 0.495.6 ± 0.694.3 ± 0.533.8 ± 0.30§

NOTE: The results are mean ± SE of the data obtained in eight mice per group.

Abbreviation: N, nucleotides.

  • *P < 0.001, significantly different from sham.

  • P < 0.01, significantly different from ECS.

  • P < 0.001, significantly different from ECS.

  • §P < 0.05, significantly different from ECS.

  • P < 0.01, significantly different from sham.

  • P < 0.05, significantly different from sham.