Table 1.

Risk factor and micronutrient profiles of the study population

Risk factors*Cases n (%) or medianNoncases n (%) or medianP
No. women103 (27)273 (73)
Median age at enrollment (y)23230.875
Education: less than high school26 (25.2)54 (19.8)0.248
Completed high school or greater77 (74.8)219 (80.2)
Race: African American59 (57.3)187 (68.5)0.041
Caucasian American44 (42.7)86 (31.5)
WC: >88 cm54 (52.9)168 (61.5)0.132
≤88 cm48 (47.1)105 (38.5)
Healthy eating index (Block scale of 0-100)53540.330
Moderate activity/wk: ≥150 min19 (18.4)61 (22.3)0.410
<150 min84 (81.6)212 (77.7)
Current smoker: Yes53 (51.5)92 (33.7)0.002
No50 (48.5)181 (66.3)
Parity: 2+ live births45 (43.7)78 (28.6)0.010
1 live birth33 (32.0)93 (34.1)
0 live births25 (24.3)102 (37.4)
Life time sexual partners: ≥2100 (98.0)257 (94.5)0.172
<22 (2.0)15 (5.5)
Hormonal/oral contraceptives: ever used50 (49.0)124 (46.1)0.615
Never used52 (51.0)145 (53.9)
Micronutrient concentrations by cut point
    Folate (ng/mL): >19.89 (8.8)39 (14.5)0.146
    Folate (ng/mL): ≤19.893 (91.2)230 (85.5)
    Vitamin B12 (pg/mL): ≥200.684 (81.6)245 (89.7)0.032
    Vitamin B12 (pg/mL): <200.619 (18.4)28 (10.3)
Median micronutrient concentrations
    Folate (ng/mL)12.5511.300.417
    Vitamin B12 (pg/mL)373.88402.540.361
    Vitamin C (μg/mL)15.1314.460.531
    α-Tocopherol (mg%)0.770.800.737
    γ-Tocopherol (mg%)1.952.060.139
    Vitamin A (μg%)32.0532.460.998
    Total carotene (μg%)84.5587.930.707

NOTE: P values for >χ2 from Kruskal-Wallis test for median values. P values from a χ2 test are shown for frequency values.

  • *Nonreference category is listed first.

  • Fisher's exact test two-sided Pr ≤ P.