Table 2.

Wnt signaling–related genes regulated by deguelin

Genbank accession no. (UniGene symbol)Fold changeInvolvement in the Wnt signaling pathway
NM_003395 (WNT14)−25.4WNT14 was significantly upregulated in one of nine cases of primary breast cancer
AF125377 (SNAIL1)−8.1Snail1 is a potent EMT inducer in normal and neoplastic cells, as well as an important predictor of breast cancer metastatic potential and recurrence
NM_014421 (DKK2)−6.2Can activate or inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway
NM_004185 (WNT2B)−5.0Positive regulator of the WNT–β-catenin–TCF signaling pathway
NM_003013 (SFRP2)−3.8Secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) has been reported to be abundantly expressed in canine mammary tumor cells but not in normal canine mammary gland cells
NM_033131 (Wnt3A)−2.4Wnt-3a initiates Dvl-3, Akt/PKB, and GSK-3β hyperphosphorylation and β-catenin activation
NR_024047 (WNT2)30.5WNT2 is present in normal human breast tissue
NM_007017 (SOX30)25.5Expression of SOX30 in the breast could be a marker of differentiation and part of the signature induced by pregnancy in the breast epithelial cells
NM_016279 (CDH9)21.9Cadherin/catenin adhesion complex
AB059569 (WNT10A)21.6Although upregulation of WNT10A mRNA might play key roles in some cases of esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer, its role in breast cancer is not well defined
NM_001083962 (TCF4)19.2Unbound to nuclear β-catenin, it functions to repress genes involved in cell proliferation; however, when bound to β-catenin, it coactivates downstream target genes in diverse systems including the breast
NM_001130861 (CLDN5)18.9β-Catenin nuclear localization is inversely related to claudin-5 expression
NM_020384 (CLDN2)17.4These results suggest that CLDN2 is implicated in the progression as well as the development of breast carcinoma, indicating that CLDN2 is a possible tumor suppressor gene product; gene expression mediated by the promoter of the human tight junction protein claudin-2 is regulated by factors involved in Wnt signaling
NM_031866 (FZD8)16.9Wnt activators in several types of cancers; function in breast cancer unknown
NM_007197 (FZD10)11.1No data are available for MDA_MB-231 cells. Furthermore, FZD10 mRNA was undetectable in MCF-7 cells but significantly upregulated by β-estradiol in MCF-7 cells. Further research is necessary to better elucidate its role in MDA-MB-231 cells
NM_004189 (SOX14)8.2Transcription factors; function not well defined for breast cancer
NM_014420 (DKK4)8.0Wnt/β-catenin inhibitors
AJ007611 (CDH7)7.5Cadherin/catenin adhesion complex; cadherin was found to be expressed in human mammary epithelial cells
Y12692 (WNT11)7.2Involved in the transformation of mammary epithelial cells
NM_007191 (WIF1)5.3Binds to WNT proteins and inhibits their activities. WIF1 interacts with structurally diverse extracellular inhibitors, presumably to fine-tune the spatial and temporal patterns of WNT activity
NM_012193 (FZD4)4.4Wnt activators in several types of cancer; function in breast cancer unknown
NM_002181 (IHH)4.4Expression of Ihh has been statistically correlated with increased proliferating index of Ki-67 in invasive ductal carcinoma. Hedgehog signaling molecules play an important role in the progression of invasive ductal carcinoma of breast
CR456713 (SOX5)4.1Transcription factors; function not well defined for breast cancer
NM_001463 (FRZB)3.5Acts as a soluble WNT-binding protein that antagonizes WNT signaling
NM_001793 (CDH3)2.8Activation of β-catenin signaling has been found to correlate with upregulation of P-cadherin expression