Table 3.

Risk of postmenopausal breast cancer associated with urinary phytoestrogen levels (nmoles/mg creatinine) by race-ethnicity, Multiethnic Cohort Study

Phytoestrogen/quartile (range)All subjectsJapanese-AmericanWhite
Cases (%)Controls (%)OR* (95% CI)PtrendCases (%)Controls (%)OR* (95% CI)PtrendCases (%)Controls (%)OR* (95% CI)Ptrend
Daidzein
    Q1 (0-0.183)63 (25)115 (25)118 (16)24 (11)116 (31)38 (40)1
    Q2 (0.184-0.617)67 (27)111 (24)1.12 (0.73-1.71)27 (24)47 (22)0.78 (0.36-1.69)10 (20)24 (25)0.80 (0.31-2.07)
    Q3 (0.618-2.535)70 (28)109 (24)1.18 (0.76-1.82)39 (35)57 (26)0.95 (0.45-2.03)15 (29)17 (18)2.07 (0.81-5.30)
    Q4 (2.536-)51 (20)127 (27)0.76 (0.47-1.21)0.0728 (25)88 (41)0.41 (0.19-0.89)0.00510 (20)17 (18)1.22 (0.46-3.22)0.63
Genistein
    Q1 (0-0.022)66 (26)112 (24)116 (14)26 (12)116 (31)38 (40)1
    Q2 (0.023-0.101)60 (24)118 (26)0.87 (0.54-1.40)22 (20)48 (22)0.74 (0.32-1.74)13 (25)23 (24)1.16 (0.42-3.24)
    Q3 (0.102-0.646)70 (28)109 (24)1.10 (0.70-1.71)38 (34)50 (23)1.24 (0.58-2.66)14 (27)18 (19)1.94 (0.73-5.18)
    Q4 (0.647-)55 (22)123 (27)0.79 (0.49-1.28)0.2936 (32)92 (43)0.62 (0.29-1.32)0.088 (16)17 (18)0.98 (0.35-2.73)0.79
Equol
    Q1 (0-0.001)65 (26)113 (24)137 (33)61 (28)113 (25)17 (18)1
    Q2 (0.002-0.004)63 (25)116 (25)0.95 (0.61-1.46)24 (21)67 (31)0.61 (0.33-1.14)10 (20)14 (15)0.75 (0.24-2.34)
    Q3 (0.005-0.013)58 (23)119 (26)0.84 (0.53-1.34)20 (18)48 (22)0.70 (0.35-1.40)13 (25)27 (28)0.46 (0.15-1.37)
    Q4 (0.014-)65 (26)114 (25)0.99 (0.62-1.56)0.8031 (28)40 (19)1.32 (0.70-2.49)0.0615 (29)38 (40)0.27 (0.08-0.95)0.07
Daidzein + genistein
    Q1 (0-0.218)66 (26)112 (24)115 (13)23 (11)117 (33)37 (39)1
    Q2 (0.219-0.754)61 (24)117 (25)0.89 (0.57-1.40)27 (24)51 (24)0.85 (0.38-1.92)8 (16)25 (26)0.55 (0.20-1.53)
    Q3 (0.755-3.216)73 (29)106 (23)1.19 (0.77-1.84)41 (37)52 (24)1.32 (0.59-2.95)16 (31)16 (17)2.41 (0.88-6.59)
    Q4 (3.217-)51 (20)127 (27)0.70 (0.44-1.13)0.0829 (26)90 (42)0.51 (0.23-1.13)0.00810 (20)18 (19)0.97 (0.37-2.54)0.72
Daidzein + genistein + equol
    Q1 (0-0.229)65 (26)114 (25)115 (13)25 (12)116 (31)37 (39)1
    Q2 (0.230-0.799)62 (25)115 (25)0.96 (0.61-1.51)27 (24)49 (23)0.95 (0.42-2.16)9 (18)24 (25)0.65 (0.24-1.79)
    Q3 (0.800-3.683)75 (30)103 (22)1.30 (0.84-2.02)42 (38)50 (23)1.55 (0.70-3.45)17 (33)15 (16)2.93 (1.07-8.07)
    Q4 (3.684-)49 (20)130 (28)0.69 (0.43-1.10)0.0428 (25)92 (43)0.53 (0.24-1.16)0.0039 (18)20 (21)0.85 (0.32-2.25)0.82
Enterolactone
    Q1 (0-0.378)56 (22)123 (27)133 (29)72 (33)14 (8)13 (14)1
    Q2 (0.379-1.373)73 (29)104 (23)1.45 (0.94-2.25)31 (28)46 (21)1.47 (0.77-2.79)12 (24)18 (19)2.22 (0.58-8.58)
    Q3 (1.374-3.307)71 (28)108 (23)1.27 (0.82-1.97)28 (25)41 (19)1.36 (0.74-2.50)16 (31)23 (24)2.12 (0.56-8.09)
    Q4 (3.308-)51 (20)127 (27)0.83 (0.53-1.32)0.1020 (18)57 (26)0.77 (0.41-1.45)0.2019 (37)42 (44)1.26 (0.34-4.66)0.42

NOTE: Cases and controls matched on geographic area, ethnicity, birth year, date and time of specimen collection, fasting status and HRT use.

  • *Adjusted for age at blood draw and fasting hours before blood draw as continuous variables.