Table 1

Gene promoter methylation status at baseline using patient (combining six bronchial brush sites within each patient) as an analysis unit

Characteristicp16FHITp16/FHIT
BronchialOralBronchialOralBronchialOral
MUMUMUMUMUMU
No. patients (%)74 (58.3)53 (41.7)24 (19.4)100 (80.4)50 (39.4)77 (60.6)19 (15.3)105 (84.7)98 (77.2)29 (22.8)39 (31.2)86 (68.8)
Age (y), n (%)
 <5462 (48.8)36 (58.1)26 (41.9)12 (20.3)47 (79.7)24 (38.7)38 (61.3)9 (15.3)50 (84.7)46 (74.2)16 (25.8)19 (31.7)41 (68.3)
 ≥5465 (51.2)38 (58.5)27 (41.5)12 (18.5)53 (81.5)26 (40)39 (60)10 (15.4)55 (84.6)52 (80)13 (20)20 (30.8)45 (69.2)
P0.960.790.880.980.440.91
Sex, n (%)
 F58 (45.7)39 (67.2)19 (32.8)12 (21.1)45 (78.9)25 (43.1)33 (56.9)10 (17.9)46 (82.1)49 (84.5)9 (15.5)20 (35.1)37 (64.9)
 M69 (54.3)35 (50.7)34 (49.3)12 (17.9)55 (82.1)25 (36.2)44 (63.8)9 (13.2)59 (86.8)49 (71)20 (29)19 (27.9)49 (72.1)
P0.060.660.430.480.070.39
Smoker, n (%)
Current99 (78)59 (59.6)40 (40.4)21 (21.9)75 (78.1)38 (38.4)61 (61.6)12 (12.5)84 (87.5)77 (77.8)22 (22.2)31 (32)66 (68)
Former28 (22)15 (53.6)13 (43.4)3 (10.7)25 (89.3)12 (42.9)16 (57.1)7 (25)21 (75)21 (75)7 (25)8 (28.6)20 (71.4)
P0.560.280.670.110.760.73
Pack-years, n (%)
 <3036 (28.3)12 (33.3)24 (66.7)3 (8.6)32 (91.4)14 (38.9)22 (61.1)6 (17.1)29 (82.9)20 (55.6)16 (44.4)9 (25)27 (75)
 30-4032 (25.2)23 (71.9)9 (28.1)6 (18.8)26 (81.3)15 (46.9)17 (53.1)4 (12.5)28 (87.5)29 (90.6)3 (9.4)9 (28.1)23 (71.9)
 41-5024 (18.9)15 (62.5)9 (37.5)5 (20.8)19 (79.2)8 (33.3)16 (66.7)6 (25)18 (75)19 (79.2)5 (20.8)10 (41.7)14 (58.3)
 ≥5035 (27.6)24 (68.6)11 (31.4)10 (30.3)23 (69.7)13 (37.1)22 (62.9)3 (9.1)30 (90.9)30 (85.7)5 (14.3)11 (33.3)22 (66.7)
P*0.00030.080.940.720.00030.34
Quit-years, n (%)
 <199 (78)59 (59.6)40 (40.4)21 (21.9)75 (78.1)38 (38.4)61 (61.6)12 (12.5)84 (87.5)77 (77.8)22 (22.2)31 (32)66 (68)
 1-1018 (14.2)9 (50)9 (50)3 (16.7)15 (83.3)9 (50)9 (50)6 (33.3)12 (66.7)14 (77.8)4 (22.27 (38.9)11 (61.1)
 >1010 (7.9)6 (60)4 (40)0 (0)10 (100)3 (30)7 (70)1 (10)9 (90)7 (70)3 (30)1 (10)9 (90)
P10.210.7410.690.17

Abbreviations: M, methylated; U, unmethylated.

  • *Comparing methylation between the groups <30 and ≥30 pack-years.

  • Comparing methylation between the groups <10 and ≥10 quit-years.