Table 1

ACF: chronology of when first identified according to source and methodology

YearSourceMethodology
1987, Bird (8)Azoxymethane-treated C57BL/6J mice ex vivoFormalin-fixed whole colon
Methylene blue stained, ×40
1991, Pretlow et al. (10)Human colons resected for colorectal cancerParaformaldehyde-fixed whole-mount preparations
Normal-appearing segments ex vivoMethylene blue stained, ×40
1991, Roncucci et al. (13)Human colons resected for colorectal cancerUnfixed, fresh colon
Normal-appearing segments ex vivoMethylene blue stained, ×20
1998, Takayama et al. (16)Human subjects undergoing colonoscopy in vivoMagnifying chromoendoscopy
Methylene blue spray, ×40