Table 2.

Included prospective studies of circulating levels of 25(OH)D and risk of colon and rectal cancers

Study nameFirst author (ref.)Country (sex)Age at blood donation in controls (y)Study dates (follow-up)25(OH)D, mean or medianColonRectum
25(OH)D levels in the top vs. bottom quantilesNo. of cases/ controlsOR (95% CI) in the quantilesa25(OH)D levels in the top vs. bottom quantilesNo. of cases/ controlsOR (95% CI) in the quantilesa
CLUE AbGarland (11)US (M, W)74.7% in 45–74 year1975–198330.5 in cases and 33.3 ng/mL in controls, mean42 vs. 19 ng/mL, cutoff34/67Q1–Q5 1.0 (reference), 0.48, 0.25, 0.21, 0.73 (0.20–2.66)N/AN/AN/A
CLUE BbBraun (18)US (M, W)55, median1984–199123.6 in cases and 23.2 ng/mL in controls, mean30.1 vs. 17.2 ng/mL, cutoff57/114Q1–Q5 1.0 (reference), 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.4 (0.1–1.4); P for trend = 0.57N/AN/AN/A
ATBCbTangrea (14)Finland (M)60, median1985–199312.1 in cases and 13.8 ng/mL in controls, mean19.3 vs. 9.8 ng/mL, cutoff91/181Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 0.6, 0.8, 0.8 (0.4–1.6); P for trend = 0.6919.2 vs. 9.8 ng/mL, cutoff55/109Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 0.9, 0.8, 0.4 (0.1–1.1); P for trend = 0.06
NHScFeskanich (7)dUS (W)60.0, mean1989–200023.6 in cases and 24.3 ng/mL in controls in lab1, 27.0 in cases and 30.3 ng/mL in controls in lab2, mean28.7 vs. 18.9 ng/mL in lab1, 35.9 vs. 23.6 ng/mL in lab 2, cutoff149/295Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 1.03, 0.54, 0.70 (0.35– 1.38); P for trend = 0.1727.2 vs. 20.5 ng/mL in lab1, 33.5 vs. 26.1 ng/mL in lab 2, cutoff44/88Q1–Q3 1.0 (reference), 0.52, 0.31 (0.08–1.31); P for trend = 0.03
HPFScWu (8)US (M)66.1, mean1993–200228.7 in cases and 29.4 ng/mL in controls, mean38.8 vs. 19.3 ng/mL, median139/276Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 0.74, 0.29, 0.46 (0.24–0.89); P for trend = 0.00537.4 vs. 21.2 ng/mL, median40/80Q1–Q3 1.0 (reference), 1.74, 3.32 (0.87–12.69); P for trend = 0.08
WHIbWactawski- Wende (10)e,fUS (W)50–79, range1993–2005N/AN/AN/AN/A23.4 vs. 12.4 ng/mL, cutoff68/68Q1–Q4 3.40 (1.13–10.21)g, 1.08, 3.41, 1.00 (reference) P for trend = 0.22
JPHScOtani (13)Japan (M)56.9, mean1990–200327.3 in cases and 27.6 ng/mL in controls, median35.6 vs. 19.9 ng/mL, median119/237Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 0.98, 1.0, 1.2 (0.51–2.7); P for trend = 0.7035.6 vs. 19.9 ng/mL, median44/87Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 0.17, 0.25, 0.075 (0.0057–0.99); P for trend = 0.06
Japan (W)56.4, mean1990–200322.5 in cases and 22.3 ng/mL in controls, median31.4 vs. 16.6 ng/mL, median106/195Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 1.7, 2.1, 2.1 (0.78–5.6); P for trend = 0.1231.4 vs. 16.6 ng/mL, median54/102Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 0.26, 0.46, 0.33 (0.084–1.3); P for trend = 0.17
EPICb,cJenab (9)fEurope (M, W)58.7 for colon, 58.0 for rectum, mean1992–200320.7 in cases and 22.9 ng/mL in controls for colon, 22.0 in cases and 22.0 ng/mL in controls for rectum, geometric mean39.7 vs. 13.2 ng/mL, median785/785Q1–Q5 1.0 (reference), 0.77, 0.65, 0.66, 0.47 (0.33–0.68); P for trend <0.00141.7 vs. 12.8 ng/mL, median463/463Q1–Q5 1.0 (reference), 1.29, 1.06, 1.18, 0.89 (0.56–1.43); P for trend = 0.647
MECcWoolcott (12)hUS (M, W)69.2, mean2001–200623.2 in cases and 25.0 ng/mL in controls, mean32.8 vs. 16.8 ng/mL, cutoff170/319Q1–Q5 1.0 (reference), 0.82, 0.70, 0.73, 0.83 (0.42–1.63); P for trend = 0.1732.8 vs. 16.8 ng/mL, cutoff43/83Q1–Q5 1.0 (reference), 0.55, 0.34, 0.28, 0.28 (0.06–1.38); P for trend = 0.02
PHScLee (this study)US (M)56.6, mean1982–200026.6 in cases and 25.6 ng/mL in controls, mean36.8 vs. 14.9 ng/mL, median172/287Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 0.95, 1.34, 1.38 (0.73– 2.64); P for trend = 0.3539.2 vs. 17.9 ng/mL, median57/102Q1–Q4 1.0 (reference), 0.53, 0.42, 0.45 (0.14–1.46); P for trend = 0.05

Abbreviations: ATBC, Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study; CLUE, from the campaign slogan, “Give us a CLUE to cancer”; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HPFS, Health Professionals Follow-up Study; JPHC, Japan Public Health Center Study; MEC, Multiethnic Cohort Study; NHS, Nurses' Health Study; PHS, Physicians' Health study; WHI, Women's Health Initiative; M, men; W, women.

aQ1–Q5, quintiles; Q1–Q4, quartiles; Q1–Q3, tertiles.

bSerum specimen was used.

cPlasma specimen was used.

dEstimates of quantile cutoff were obtained from the investigator of the NHS.

eEstimates for rectal cancer were obtained from the Publications and Presentations committee of the WHI.

fThe conversion factor for 25(OH)D from nmol/L to ng/mL is 0.401.

gFor top vs. bottom quartiles, OR (95% CI) = 0.29 (0.098–0.89).

hEstimates for colon and rectal cancers were obtained from the investigator of the Multiethnic Cohort Study.