Table 2.

Feed and liquid intake in dams during pregnancy (n = 7–9 per group) exposed to LIM, HIM, or tap water (control) from GD 11 until they gave birth

 Maternal treatment
LIMHIMControlP
Food intake, g/day15.2 ± 0.3a16.9 ± 0.8a19.2 ± 0.8b<0.001
Liquid intake, g/day48.4 ± 3.0a52.4 ± 2.0a30.2 ± 2.3b<0.001
Energy intake, kcal/day75.9 ± 1.884.1 ± 3.374.9 ± 3.50.07
Daily phytoestrogen exposure, μg/kg body weight16.9 ± 1.175.1 ± 2.20<0.001
Female birth weight, g/pup7.4 ± 0.36.8 ± 0.27.0 ± 0.10.14
Male birth weight, g/pup7.9 ± 0.47.1 ± 0.17.6 ± 0.10.09
Female/male ratio1.3 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.30.9 ± 0.30.54

NOTE: All values are mean ± SEM. Birth weight of pups and female/male ratio in the litters are given here.

a,bDifferent superscripts indicate statistical difference at the P < 0.05 level.