Table 3.

Serum 17β-estradiol (E2), IGF-1 and isoflavones in dams at GD 19 (n = 5–9 per group) exposed to LIM, HIM, or tap water (control) from GD 11 until they gave birth

 Maternal treatment
LIMHIMControlP
E2, pg/mL482 ± 10.2419 ± 17.8a468 ± 26.10.19
IGF-1, ng/mL904 ± 32.7782 ± 37.4a824 ± 52.10.15
Equolb, μmol/LBelow detectionBelow detectionBelow detection
Genisteinb, μmol/L0.23 ± 0.070.23 ± 0.080.29 ± 0.030.76
Daidzeinc, μmol/L0.33 ± 0.100.26 ± 0.100.37 ±0.020.63

NOTE: All values are mean ± SEM.

  • aP < 0.05, compared with the LIM group.

  • bLimit of detection (LOD): 0.05 μmol/L; limit of quantification (LOQ): 0.15 μmol/L. Equol could be detected in 4 of 27 samples and therefore considered below detection. Genistein could be detected in 22 of 27 samples and a surrogate value 0.05 μmol/L was inserted for samples below the LOD.

  • cLOD: 0.03 μmol/L; LOQ: 0.08 μmol/L. Daidzein could be detected in 24 of 27 samples and a surrogate value 0.03 μmol/L was inserted for samples below the LOD.