Table 2.

Means, differences, and SDs of hormonal network biomarkers (μmol/L) for the tomato arm of the intervention (N = 60)a

BiomarkerMean (SD)
Week 2Week 12DifferencebPc
IGF-I129.1 (39.7)132.0 (39.9)2.9 (21.1)0.19
IGFBP-32,076.1 (441.5)2,055.2 (426.2)−20.9 (167.7)0.56
Estradiol14.6 (5.2)16.5 (9.7)1.9 (9.0)0.19
SHBG50.2 (24.7)51.8 (25.0)1.7 (6.5)0.08
C-peptide4.6 (2.7)4.6 (2.4)0.04 (2.0)0.55
Insulin11.9 (11.6)10.6 (7.0)8.6 (.11)0.60
  • aOne woman was excluded because of a late follow-up, and 9 women were lost to follow-up.

  • bDifference is calculated as follows: week 12 − week 2.

  • cP values were calculated using exact Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (nonparametric mean pairwise tests).