Table 3.

NF-κB (subunit p65), AP-1 (c-Jun/c-Fos), and 8-OHdG nuclear staining in lung tissue by treatment groups

% of positive cells
Treatment groupAlveolar epithelial cellsaBronchiolar epithelial cellsaBronchial epithelial cellsaBronchial serous/mucous gland epithelial cellsa,b% of total positive epithelial cellsa
NF-κB
Control6.67 ± 1.55c7.50 ± 2.01c6.32 ± 1.81d2.45 ± 1.07c,d7.04 ± 1.73c
Low-dose β-cryptoxanthin5.85 ± 1.81c8.22 ± 2.14c6.15 ± 1.32d2.62 ± 0.64c,d6.30 ± 1.52c
High-dose β-cryptoxanthin6.32 ± 1.59c7.83 ± 1.97c6.83 ± 1.83d2.28 ± 0.86d6.58 ± 1.41c
Smoke31.85 ± 5.69e43.72 ± 7.95e36.93 ± 6.88e23.87 ± 5.07e33.52 ± 7.60e
Smoke/low-dose β-cryptoxanthin26.93 ± 3.96e36.55 ± 4.63e28.48 ± 3.81f11.05 ± 2.34f29.67 ± 4.71e
Smoke/high-dose β-cryptoxanthin18.27 ± 3.53f24.68 ± 4.77f21.28 ± 4.19c6.68 ± 1.45c20.54 ± 4.50f
C-Jun
Control8.70 ± 1.52c11.80 ± 2.33c9.41 ± 2.00c7.73 ± 1.14c9.19 ± 2.56c
Low-dose β-cryptoxanthin9.08 ± 2.39c10.93 ± 2.57c9.34 ± 1.82c7.42 ± 0.88c8.62 ± 1.96c
High-dose β-cryptoxanthin8.51 ± 2.40c11.19 ± 1.85c8.82 ± 2.18c8.08 ± 1.43c8.34 ± 2.39c
Smoke23.50 ± 3.62e32.22 ± 5.27e27.47 ± 6.42e42.76 ± 7.40e25.61 ± 4.58e
Smoke/low-dose β-cryptoxanthin21.67 ± 3.41e30.87 ± 4.65e25.38 ± 4.79e,f35.98 ± 5.97e23.08 ± 4.19e
Smoke/high-dose β-cryptoxanthin16.63 ± 2.26f21.55 ± 3.13f18.73 ± 3.46f23.87 ± 4.71f17.20 ± 2.84f
C-Fos
Control7.35 ± 1.31f7.88 ± 2.03f6.23 ± 1.22f6.11 ± 1.12c7.52 ± 1.79f
Low-dose β-cryptoxanthin6.72 ± 1.55f8.07 ± 1.69f6.45 ± 1.74f5.89 ± 1.53c6.63 ± 1.60f
High-dose β-cryptoxanthin6.92 ± 1.61f7.55 ± 2.16f5.98 ± 1.4f5.73 ± 1.02c7.03 ± 2.35f
Smoke16.82 ± 2.93e20.70 ± 4.17e15.02 ± 3.10e31.53 ± 5.89e17.06 ± 3.70e
Smoke/low-dose β-cryptoxanthin16.12 ± 2.70e19.09 ± 3.92e12.94 ± 2.15e28.40 ± 4.72e16.46 ± 3.06e
Smoke/high-dose β-cryptoxanthin14.97 ± 2.41e17.68 ± 3.37e12.67 ± 2.18e19.10 ± 3.20f15.37 ± 2.63e
8-OHdG
Control0.45 ± 0.13c0.59 ± 0.28c0.38 ± 0.11c0.24 ± 0.09c0.67 ± 0.20c
Low-dose β-cryptoxanthin0.42 ± 0.12c0.48 ± 0.20c0.37 ± 0.10c0.26 ± 0.08c0.51 ± 0.17c
High-dose β-cryptoxanthin0.39 ± 0.17c0.46 ± 0.12c0.33 ± 0.08c0.29 ± 0.10c0.43 ± 0.19c
Smoke5.95 ± 1.08e6.61 ± 1.44e5.65 ± 1.25e2.27 ± 0.50e6.28 ± 1.33e
Smoke/low-dose β-cryptoxanthin4.83 ± 1.12e6.02 ± 1.28e4.75 ± 1.08e1.91 ± 0.42e5.57 ± 1.19e
Smoke/high-dose β-cryptoxanthin3.23 ± 0.96f3.35 ± 0.63f2.66 ± 0.59f1.25 ± 0.31f3.66 ± 0.64f

NOTE: Values are expressed as means ± SD (n = 6 in each group). Ten high power (400×) fields per lung were counted for each compartment and location.

  • aTests for interaction between smoke exposure and β-cryptoxanthin treatments were significant for NF-κB (subunit p65), c-Jun, and 8-OHdG (P < 0.05).

  • bTests for interaction between smoke exposure and β-cryptoxanthin treatments were significant for c-Fos (P = 0.0005).

  • c,d,e,fFor a given column, data not sharing a common superscript letter are statistically significantly different from each other (P ≤ 0.05, ANOVA overall F-test followed by Tukey's honest test).