Table 1.

Plasma and lung tissue concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, the occurrence of lung squamous metaplasia, and the grade of lung inflammation by treatment groups

Treatment groupNPlasma (nmol/L)aLung (nmol/kg)aNo. of ferrets with lung squamous metaplasia/total number in each groupbMedian values of lung inflammation grade (range)c
Control (sham exposure)6NDND0/6d1 (0–1)e
Low-dose β-cryptoxanthin669 ± 9d31 ± 5d0/6d0.5 (0–1)e
High-dose β-cryptoxanthin6117 ± 20f63 ± 10f0/6d0.5 (0–1)e
Smoke6NDND6/6f3 (2–4)f
Smoke/low-dose β-cryptoxanthin648 ± 6e18 ± 4e2/6d,f2 (1–3)d
Smoke/high-dose β-cryptoxanthin675 ± 13d41 ± 8d1/6d2 (1–3)d

NOTE: Values are expressed as means ± SD (ANOVA overall F-test followed by Tukey's honest test) for plasma and lung β-cryptoxanthin concentrations.

  • aTests for interaction between smoke exposure and β-cryptoxanthin treatments were significant (P < 0.001).

  • bFisher's exact test.

  • cWilcoxon test.

  • d,e,fFor a given column, data not sharing a common superscript letter are statistically significantly different at P ≤ 0.05.