Table 2.

TNFα expression in lung tissue by treatment groups

% of positive cells
Treatment groupAlveolar epithelial cellsaBronchiolar epithelial cellsbBronchial epithelial cellsbBronchial serous/mucous gland epithelial cellsaMacrophagesaNo. of total positive macrophages/mm2a,c
Control7.2 ± 4.3d,eModerateModerate30.3 ± 8.7d16.7 ± 5.7d53.0 ± 14.0d
Low-dose β-cryptoxanthin5.8 ± 3.4eModerateModerate35.2 ± 9.0d15.0 ± 6.6d41.2 ± 9.5d
High-dose β-cryptoxanthin6.0 ± 4.8eModerateModerate29.2 ± 10.3d12.3 ± 3.8d35.2 ± 11.6d
Smoke85.2 ± 14.2fDarkDark89.0 ± 11.3f78.8 ± 12.1f584.5 ± 94.9f
Smoke/low-dose β-cryptoxanthin41.5 ± 10.3gModerate to darkModerate to dark60.2 ± 12.6g46.3 ± 9.6g314.5 ± 79.0g
Smoke/high-dose β-cryptoxanthin20.7 ± 6.2dModerate to darkModerate to dark43.3 ± 9.4d,g35.3 ± 8.1g239.3 ± 74.2g

NOTE: Values are expressed as means ± SD (n = 6 in each group). Ten high power (400×) fields per lung were counted for each cell type, compartment and location.

  • aTests for interaction between smoke exposure and β-cryptoxanthin treatments were significant (P < 0.0001).

  • bBronchiolar/bronchial epithelial cells were all positively stained and had different degrees of brown color staining.

  • cThe area of a large magnification field (400× magnification) corresponded to 0.094 mm2.

  • d,e,f,gFor a given column, data not sharing a common superscript letter are statistically significantly different from each other (P ≤ 0.05, ANOVA overall F-test followed by Tukey's honest test).