Table 1.

Baseline predictors of adherencea in studies of tamoxifen for prevention and/or adjuvant therapy of breast cancer

PredictorPreventionbAdjuvant therapybKey ref(s).
Current smoking+ +NWSLand et al. (29), Maurice et al. (30)
Younger age+ (<60 y)+ + (<40 or <45 y)Partridge et al. (14), Hershman et al. (16), Land et al. (29)
Older age+ (>75 y)++ (≥85, ≥80, or >75 y)Partridge et al. (14), Owusu et al. (19), Hershman et al. (16), Land et al. (29)
BC risk+ +NWSLand et al. (29)
Non-white ethnicity+ (Hispanic)+ + (African American)Hershman et al. (16), Land et al. (29)
Alcohol (<1 drink/d)+NWSLand et al. (29)
SES/income+ ++ +Kimmick et al. (24), Land et al. (29)
Marital status+++Kimmick et al. (24), Land et al. (29)
Education++Land et al. (29)
Obesity0NWSLand et al. (29)
Low physical activity0NWSLand et al. (29)
Adverse effects of tamoxifen = greatest overall association with adherenceDay et al. (8), Demissie et al. (10), Grunfeld et al. (9)

Abbreviations: BC, breast cancer; NWS, not well studied; SES, socioeconomic status.

  • aThe term adherence here refers to several definitions related to adherence (e.g., persistence/discontinuation of drug; see text).

  • bThe symbols in columns 2 and 3 referring to predictor associations have the following meanings: + +, significant and consistent; +, less strong; 0, no association.