Table 1.

Selected baseline characteristics of the clinical trial participants

Treatment group
CharacteristicsPlacebo (n = 23)Calcium (n = 23)Vitamin D (n = 23)Calcium + vitamin D (n = 23)Pa
Demographics
 Age, y58.5 (7.9)61.9 (8.0)60.2 (8.1)61.7 (7.4)0.39
 Men, %707070701.00
 White, %748365610.39
 College graduate, %656157440.53
Medical history
 History of CRC in first-degree relative, %173017130.60
 Take NSAID regularly,b %171313300.26
 If woman (n = 5), taking estrogens, %49441.00
Habits
 Current smoker, %94000.61
 Take multivitamin, %303026390.86
Mean dietary intakes
 Total energy intake, kcal/d1,596 (528)1,788 (691)1,848 (821)1,845 (752)0.59
 Total calcium,c mg/d618 (308)746 (335)843 (526)824 (714)0.41
 Total vitamin D,c IU/d277 (230)336 (202)360 (317)415 (316)0.40
 Total fat, g/d67 (32)72 (35)70 (32)74 (28)0.59
 Dietary fiber, g/d15 (7)17 (9)18 (9)17 (11)0.97
 Alcohol, g/d9 (14)11 (15)14 (18)10 (20)0.84
Anthropometrics
 BMI, kg/m230.6 (7.2)29.4 (5.5)29.0 (5.56)31.6 (6.0)0.44
 Waist-to-hip ratio0.9 (0.1)0.9 (0.1)0.9 (0.1)1.0 (0.1)0.17
25-OH-vitamin D, ng/mL20.4 (7.6)25.7 (7.6)21.0 (8.3)20.9 (9.7)0.12

NOTE: Data are given as means (SD) unless otherwise specified.

  • aBy Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and by ANOVA for continuous variables.

  • bAt least once a week.

  • cDiet plus supplements.