Table 2.

Changes in biomarkers of inflammation in plasma of colorectal adenoma patients

Baseline6-mo follow-upAbsolute treatment effectaRelative treatment effectb
BiomarkersnMeanSDPcnMeanSDPdMean95% CIPc
Proinflammatory
CRP,e μg/mL
 Placebo221.773.80N/A211.884.160.77N/AN/AN/A1.00
 Calcium211.133.500.21211.094.320.85−0.09(−0.40 to 0.56)0.710.92
 Vitamin D221.392.790.49220.991.970.05−0.39(−0.91 to 0.86)0.110.68
 Calcium + vitamin D211.932.940.82212.213.060.420.08(−0.40 to 0.57)0.741.09
TNF-α,e pg/mL
 Placebo234.131.92N/A214.572.050.09N/AN/AN/A1.00
 Calcium233.041.940.28213.351.880.670.06(−0.21 to 0.33)0.661.06
 Vitamin D222.921.780.09222.732.520.46−0.14(−0.40 to 0.13)0.300.87
 Calcium + vitamin D233.621.750.50214.001.620.280.03(−0.23 to 0.30)0.811.03
IL-6,e pg/mL
 Placebo231.134.54N/A211.412.670.30N/AN/AN/A1.00
 Calcium231.093.650.45210.853.290.27−0.46(−1.07 to 0.14)0.130.63
 Vitamin D220.784.680.42220.673.760.47−0.38(−0.98 to 0.23)0.220.68
 Calcium + vitamin D231.394.490.63211.623.250.50−0.08(−0.69 to 0.53)0.800.92
IL-8,e pg/mL
 Placebo234.741.59N/A215.011.780.10N/AN/AN/A1.00
 Calcium235.971.720.51215.341.520.56−0.12(−0.49 to 0.22)0.450.89
 Vitamin D225.601.520.30225.031.790.62−0.15(−0.62 to 0.08)0.130.85
 Calcium + vitamin D235.611.680.63215.091.540.60−0.14(−0.50 to 0.21)0.420.87
IL-1β,e pg/mL
 Placebo230.222.03N/A210.232.640.56N/AN/AN/A1.00
 Calcium230.273.820.56210.223.060.62−0.32(−1.16 to 0.51)0.440.73
 Vitamin D220.162.040.30220.132.280.07−0.70(−1.53 to 0.12)0.090.50
 Calcium + vitamin D230.272.620.59210.232.240.40−0.43(−1.27 to 0.41)0.310.65
Anti-inflammatory
IL-10,e pg/mL
 Placebo230.541.57N/A210.531.960.63N/AN/AN/A1.00
 Calcium230.581.680.63210.501.560.16−0.07(−0.29 to 0.15)0.520.93
 Vitamin D220.481.530.37220.431.380.23−0.05(−0.27 to 0.16)0.620.95
 Calcium + vitamin D230.261.490.66210.551.550.35−0.04(−0.26 to 0.19)0.750.96
  • aAbsolute treatment effect is the absolute change from baseline to follow-up in the treatment group minus the absolute change from baseline to follow-up in the placebo group from mixed model.

  • bRelative treatment effect is defined as follows: (treatment group follow-up/treatment group baseline)/(placebo follow-up/placebo baseline). The interpretation of the relative effect is similar to that of an OR (e.g., a relative effect of 2.0 would mean that the relative proportional change in the treatment group was twice as great as that in the placebo group).

  • cP values for difference between each treatment group and placebo group from mixed model.

  • dP values for difference between follow-up visit and baseline visit from mixed model.

  • eGeometric means with standard errors are reported, calculated by exponentiating the mean of the log-transformed values.